小篆과 秦系文字의 文字學的 意義 考察
A Study on xiao zhuan(小篆)and Qin Dynasty's Writing in Evolution of Ancient Chinese Writing
Today's Chinese character have acquired its form through the procedure of change of calligraphic style from ancient times. On the change of calligraphic style, the time during which the age of Chun Qiu(春秋 or the Chronicles of Lu) and Warring States had passed over to united Qin Dynasty, is the most important period. During the time, the unification of character had been accomplished by organization to xiao zhuan(小篆) from dai zhuan(大篆) or zhou wen(?文).Ancient Chinese writing of the age of Chun Qiu and Warring States are included in the category of dai zhuan which was called as zhou wen since after tai shi(太史) Zhou(?) had organized them. Regarding the procedure of change from zhou wen to xiao zhuan, Xu Shen(許愼) has explained in the Shuo Wen Jie ZiㆍXu as the change procedure of ancient Chinese writing had connected through in the order of 'gu wen(古文)'―'zhou wen'―'xiao zhuan'. According to his theory, it is comprehended that generally, the evolution of calligraphic style had developed from zhou wen to xiao zhuan, and xiao zhuan had been appeared by Li Si(李斯) after the unification of China by the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty. However, it is difficult to determine that xiao zhuan had been established by Li Si alone.Qin Dynasty's writing had been commonly used from the age of Chun Qiu and Warring States to Qin Dynasty. The early resource of Qin Dynasty's writing at the age of Chun Qiu, qin gong zhong and qin gong lian already had formed the foundation of calligraphic style of xiao zhuan. The shi gu wen and the shang yang fang sheng at the time of Qin Xiao Gong(孝公) have been shown similar style to xiao zhuan, and later zu chu wen has succeeded its linage. It had been continued to xin qiㆍyang ling hu fu , royal command plates(詔版), and tai shan ke xi in the time of the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty, which shows completed style of xiao zhuan. Considering the extant resources of Qin Dynasty's writing, it can be found out that the theory asserting that xiao zhuan had been created by Li Si after unification of Qin Dyansty might not be accurate. Xiao zhuan is the core fruit of the policy of character unification by the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty. It is the symbol of authority to show superiority of the united Empire, and the practical product to unite different economyㆍsocietyㆍculture etc. due to different styles of characters at each region at the age of Warring States. the investigation of completing stages of xiao zhuan with the evolution of Qin Dynasty's writing can be interpreted as to build a bridge between past and present on the research of the evolution of ancient Chinese writing, and has important significance.
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