형사절차에 있어서 범인식별에 관한 연구
A Study on Identification in the Criminal Procedure
Eyewitness Identification can be a powerful piece of evidence in a criminal prosecution. It is frequently an essential piece of evidence as well as more scientific forms of identification evidence, such as fingerprint and handwriting analyses, are not always available.Identification testimony has at least three components. First, witnessing a crime, whether as a victim or a bystander, involves perception of an event actually occuring. Second, the witness must memorize details of the event. Third, the witness must be able to recall and communicate accurately. Dangers of unreliability in eyewitness testimony arise at each of these three stages of the identification process, for whenever people attempt to acquire, retain and retrieve information accurately they are limited by normal human fallibilities and suggestive influences. Anyway, (1) The witness should be instructed that the actual perpetrater may or may not be in the lineup or photo array, and that consequently they should not feel that they have to make an identification. (2) The lineup or photo array should be composed in such a way that the suspect does not unduly stand out. (3) A clear statement should be taken from the witness at the time of identification, and prior to any feedback, indicating the degree of confidence by the witness that the person identified is the perpetrator. (4) The person conducting the lineup or photo array should not know the identify of the suspect. (5) Mock witness should be used to test the neutrality of the lineup or photo array. (6) Sequential rather than simultaneous identification procedures should be used.
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