정치적 풍자와 농담: 우크라이나 사회문화현상의 메타포
Political Satires and Jokes in Ukraine: The metaphor of social and cultural phenomenons
Since the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, Ukrainians have experienced a transition period of social system and have participated in the construction of a new society. In this study, the author attempts to explain the perception and feeling of Ukrainians about the political and social changes, analyzing Ukrainians oral folklore, such as political satires, jokes and graffiti. Examples of these oral traditions show that political satires and jokes are not only amusement and communication tools but also metaphor that reflects political and social phenomenons of Ukraine. For this study, the author focuses on the following social phenomenon or event in Ukraine: 1) Orange Revolution in 2004, 2) "New Russians" or "New Ukrainian," who are stereotypical caricatures of the newly rich business class in post-Soviet Russia. In interpreting genre as the transition between history, ideology, and popular culture, the author relies on theories by Victor Turner, Mikhail Bakhtin, Robert Elliott, and Emil Draitser who defined satires and jokes as an aesthetic, social, and psychological category. Analyzing political satires, jokes and graffiti about Orange Revolution and "New Russians," the author explains that as a means of artistic communication, these oral folklores can help achieve consensus, exercise social control, introduce competition and conflict in a group, or reduce the social pain which can be created during the transition period. Also, with these oral traditions, traumas of the external world become no more than occasions for the ego to gain pleasure. The author treats the widespread proliferation of political satires, jokes and graffiti as a phenomenon worthy of sociological attention, pointing out that these forms of social interaction not only serve popular entertainment but also represent a noteworthy sociopolitical phenomenon.
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