한국 근현대 禪院의 한 초상 ―化主와 外護의 퇴조
A Portrait of Modern Korean Chan Chamber : The Decline of the Chief Donor and External Supporter
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the character of modern Korean Chan Buddhism with regard to the decline of the Lay Chief Donors(化主) and External Supporters(外護). They have aided externally, for example, living expenses and physical labor for monks and nuns, contrasted with the internal aid of the Buddha's teaching. They are, so to speak, 'the others' in modern Korean Buddhism. I survey the changing process, the background, and factors of the Lay Chief Donor and External Supporter. Their declines in Chan chamber are found in the Chan peaceful dwelling record (芳啣錄). The lay chief donner and external supporter's specific gravity and role atrophied gradually in 1945 or so. And their role in Chan chamber was over in the late 1950s. The reason is because of Buddhist conservatism and time sprit which is a wise mother and good wife. And then the Buddhist Purification Campaign(1954~1962) had a noticeable effect. While the decline of them in modern Korean Chan chambers may not seem significant, there were implications for Korean religious history. A key consequence is that the dynamic Chan practice and Buddhist role responsibilities were declined.
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