미국영화산업의 발전과 검열에 대한 대응
A Study on the American Film Industry and Film Censorship
This study investigated how American film industry appeared in end of 19th century responded to censorship from local government or federal government and as a result, what appearances the film industry were changed to. In America, film industry appeared in the turning period from 19th century to the 20th century. As nickelodeon appeared between 1905 and 1910, the film industry had grown as popular entertainment industry. And voice requiring regulation against such movies became high. The press, the religious world, revolutionists mainly asserted regulation and censorship for such a film industry. They asserted that film industry made emigrants and the worker class be degraded culturally and morally. And they gave pressure on local government or federal government so that they could implement censorship about movies. Furthermore, they tried to make system to regulate movies.Pressure of censorship about film industry can be investigated largely in three stages. The first stage is the period of the National Board of Censorship which appeared by film industries as a response to pressure of censorship when initial film industry appeared. Second stage is the period of Motion Picture Production Code which appeared to respond to the National Board of Censorship ? Motion Picture Production Code appeared in the level of state government or city government after Mutual Decision saying that movie is not media or organization for public opinion. Final stage is the period of Rating system appeared after the Miracle Case saying that expression in movie has the freedom of speech and publication.In the first stage, American film industries founded and sponsored the National Board of Censorship which was organized by favorable social bodies for them to avoid pressure of censorship in 1909. The National Board of Censorship favorable for film industries from its birth started as an independent organization but they became subordinate to Motion Picture Patents Company which was an organization of American film industries. Under this circumstances, the Board of Censorship in state level began to be founded and in early 1914, a bill for establishment of Federal Motion Picture Committee for censorship of federal level was submitted. Although the bill was rejected, this showed necessity of new organization which can efficiently respond to threat of censorship for film industries.On the other hand, Mutual Decision in 1915 made be sure of necessity for such an organization for film industries, made establish National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1915, and led to establish the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in 1922. William H. Hays, the representative of this organization thought that the best alternative to avoid pressure of censorship is self-regulation. To this end, Motion Picture Production Code was legislated in 1934 and all the member companies were requested to follow this Code.But during the Second great war, movie started to make a strong approach about social problems and around end of 1940s, movies dealing with sexual joke appeared. This situation stirred up controversy about censorship again. On the other hand, in 1945, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America was changed to Motion Picture Association of America and censorship was intended to be strengthened.However, the Miracle Case in 1952 made the Board of Censorship in state level gradually disappear. Through a series of accidents, Motion Picture Production Code gradually lost its authority in film industries. Accordingly, in 1968, Motion Picture Association of America implemented voluntary Rating system which has continued until today.
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