서구에서 선교적 교회론의 태동 및 발전
The Origin and Development of Missional Ecclesiology in the West
This article analyzes the origin of missional ecclesiology through four European missiologists, including Johannes C.Hoekendijk, Hendrik Kraemer, David J. Bosch, and Lesslie Newbigin. Although they performed missions in different places, they all insisted that ecclesiology derived from Christendom should be overcome. They all claimed that mission is the nature of Church and it cannot be one of the church's programs.Hoekendijk was curious about the motivation of evangelism and if Church carries out evangelism for restoring Christendom which is collapsing in the West, Church has to stop doing that. For Hoekendijk, mission is supposed to be accomplished between God and World rather than Church and World. In addition, mission is a much bigger and deeper term than simple church planting. It should embody Shalom Community in eschatological term.For Kraemer, Church does not have missions, but she is mission. In other words, Church does not accomplish the mission of God in a certain time and place, but Church always carries out His mission in anywhere and anyplace. In that sense, Kraemer argued that appropriate church model should be 'world-centered' instead of 'Church-centered.' Especially, he emphasized a crucial rule of lay people in Indonesia, which is dominated by Islamic power.Bosch believed that the relationship between Church and mission is permanent. And Church should be in the World, but not of the World. In South Africa pervaded by Apartheid, Bosch stressed that Church should be an 'alternative community.' Every single Christian should proclaim the gospel in their context and keep challenging injustice rules in society.Newbigin claimed the subject of mission is the triune God who are missionaries. And Church is an instrument of His mission and a foretaste of the Kingdom of God. In the Bible, God always calls someone for sending them. Yet Church which got influences from Christendom has diminished this matter as one of options. Lay people should engage in mission in their daily lives. These theories have become the foundation of missional ecclesiology which is being carried by GOCN in the North America.
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