일본 고세토(古??)에 보이는 수입도자의 수용
Acceptance of imported Ceramics seen in Ko seto, Japan
Ko Seto (古??), or Old Seto, is a term referring to the glazed ceramic ware produced in Seto kilns in Japan during the medieval times. It is a well known fact that Ko Seto kilns produced a great variety of vessel types under the influence of the vessels from Southern Song. The difference between the techniques of the two was so great, however, that there has been a lot of controversies on their relationship. All the vessel types of Ko Seto underwent changes on their own, but it would be a subject to be handled after a discussion of the oldest form discovered so far. In this study, I will present a general information of the changes Ko Seto underwent before proceeding to the relationship between the original and the copied by taking one of the representative Ko Seto vessels copied from the original imported from China, and the influence of the Chinese ware upon the Ko Seto vessels. The development of the Ko Seto ware can be divided into three stages: the First Stage (FS, late 12th - late 13th century) marked by the vessels coated only with ash glaze; the Second Stage (SS, late 13th - mid 14th century) by the decoration with iron glaze and a wealth of designs; and the Third Stage (TS, late 14th - late 15th century) by the decline of decorative designs and the mass production of table ware such as bowls, dishes, and plates. The first of the three stages is then subdivided into four phases (PI to PIV) of which the first (PI) is further subdivided into two, a and b, and the second (PII) into three, a to c. The second stage is also subdivided into four phases (PI to PIV), and the third stage into five phases (PI to PIII, Old IV, and New IV). The entire history of Ko Seto started between the mid and late 12th century, a period characterized by the unglazed jar with four lugs, and ended with the Ogama (大窯) stage (late 15th to early 17th century). One of the most famous vessels representing the Seto ware under the influence of imported celadon works, the jar with four lugs, was produced from the earliest to the very last phase. The four-lugged jars produced in the early phase are marked by the narrow and low foot, an inverted trapezoidal or triangular cross section, unglazed surface, and three-tier horizontal lines decorating the upper body. Vessels of the Ia phase of the First Stage feature a wide, flaring foot, oval body, thick and short neck, and everted mouth rim while those of the Ib phase a high and narrow foot, globular body with voluminous shoulder, and narrow and high neck. Meanwhile, the white jars with four lugs excavated in Japan are largely divided into four Groups, GI to GIV, and their appearances suggest that the FS PIa vessels are copied from the white ceramic jars with four lugs in GII and the Ib vessels from those in GIII. The vessels after the FS PII are, however, distinctively different from the white ceramic jars with four lugs in the GIV, revealing that they had taken their own route of changes. Also, some of the early jars with unglazed surface show the foot and body similar to those of the vessels in Group II although the shape of the lugs are hardly seen in the white ceramic jars with four lugs. The production of Ko Seto bottles started from the Ib phase of the First Stage and continued until the New IV phase of the Third Stage. The bottles made in this period are classified into three groups (Bottle Type I, Bottle Type II, and Bottle Type III) according to their shapes of which the Type 1 vessels are marked by narrow waist and divided into two subgroups (A and B) according to the degree of narrowness of their waist. The vessels of the A subgroup of the FS PIb feature the inverted mouth and the B subgroup the rounded lip. The vessels of the FS PIIa also came to have rounded lips and later added by raised and angled bands. The Type II bottles in the FS PIb came to be marked by a raised band around the neck's middle part, a step around the border between neck and shoulder, the rounded lip, and ra...
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