한국 불교에 있어서의 돈점논의와 雲峰大智 선사
Sudden Enlightenment/ Sudden Cultivation and Patriarchal Chan in Korean Buddhism
The sudden-gradual argument in Chinese Buddhism was one between sudden and gradual enlightenment, but not one related with a cultivation process. The conflict between sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation and sudden enlightenment/ gradual cultivation has occurred typically in Korean Seon, but not in Chinese Chan and Japanese Zen. As a matter of fact, an emphasis on sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation is characteristic of Korean Seon, which stresses Patriarchal Chan, and the essence of the Patriarchal Chan was the very sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation. It was in the Seonmun bojang nok (Records of Precious Treasures of Seon) that the idea of sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation appeared for the first time in the Korean peninsula. This book based on the Chan of Cao-Dong school stresses that Seon is prior to Gyo (doctrine). Toward the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of those who advocated sudden enlightenment/ gradual cultivation, one of whom was Master Cheongheo Hyujeong.As for an advocate of sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation during the Joseon, there was Master Seolbong Daeji(1606?~1690?), who asserted his own unique theory of sudden enlightenment/ sudden cultivation. While explaining the whole cultivation as a process of sudden enlightenment/ gradual cultivation on the one hand, Seolbong analyses the gradual cultivation further into a sudden cultivation and a full enlightenment(jeung-o) on the other. In other words, he suggests the whole cultivation is composed of three phases, namely sudden enlightenment, sudden cultivation and full enlightenment. Furthermore, according to him, those of high and middle capacities are different in their cultivation process. For those of high spiritual ability, as they can complete their cultivation at the moment of sudden enlightenment, such a state is full enlightenment and the sudden cultivation of this sort is referred to as that for function. On the contrary, for those of middle and low capacity, their sudden enlightenment refers to understanding enlightenment(hae-o) and the sudden cultivation at this time is that for essence. Accordingly he states that one should go through gradual cultivation, which means full enlightenment after sudden cultivation.
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