민중의 꿈, 민화 금강산도의 양식계보
Dream of Common Folks - Genealogy of the Style of Geumgangsan Landscapes in Folk Painting
This study is focused on the folk paintings of Geumgangsan Mountain developed from the "paintings of true-view landscapes" (Jingyeong Sansuhwa) produced by Jeong Seon (1676-1759) and Kim Hong-do (1745-?). Whie the Geumgangsan folk paintings were developed from true-view landscape paintings, they contain frank expressions of the dreams and aspirations of ordinary people of late Joseon that can be hardly found in ordinary paintings. The aim of this study is to set up a genealogy of the surviving Geumgangsan landscapes with respect to their folk painting style. A Comprehensive View of Diamond Mountain (Geumgang Jeondo) by Jeong Seon resulted in a trend of depicting the entire panoramic view of the Inner Geumgangsan. The style continued to develop to produce masterpieces such as the painting mounted on a tenpanel folding screen in Leeum Museum in Seoul, but could not make further advancement enough to overwhelm the existing trend of painting selected attractions in the Outer Geumgangsan. There followed a new trend, painting individual scenic sites in both Inner and Outer Geumgangsan as shown by this folding screen where one half of the panels are taken by Inner Geumgangsan landscapes and the other half by Outer Geumgangsan landscapes. The attractions of the Inner Geumgangsan are arranged according to the sightseeing route while those of the Outer Geumgangsan in an arbitrary manner. The painting of Geumgangsan collected by Wonkwang University Museum displays professional brush stokes capturing characteristic elements of both Inner and Outer Geumgangsan views. The paintings of Inner and Outer Geumgangsan continued to develop in a variety of ways under a strong influence from the works by Jeong Seon, but gradually vanished away following the introduction of Western art techniques and widespread circulation of published materials such as photographs and post cards. As the area of dreams and imaginations became replaced by information of the real world through realistic paintings and photographs, the Geumgangsan landscapes continued to lose the folk painting style based on the Jingyeong landscape paintings developed during the late Joseon period. A closer examination of the history of the folk painting style Geumgangsan landscapes mounted on folding screens shows similarities with that of the Hyoje Munjado, the ideographic painting of filial piety and familial love and etc. Both started by professional artists, developed into the genre of folk painting with its own style before being gradually disappeared. The tendency of stylization in the folk painting of late Joseon has since then grown into one of the most characteristic features of Korea art.
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