『신증동국여지승람』 토산 항목의 구성과 특징
The Organization and Characteristics of the Documentation of Local Product in the Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea (Sinjeung dongguk yeoji seungnam, 『新增東國輿地勝覽』) - A Comparison with the Geographical Appendix to the Annals of King Sejong (Sejong sillok jiriji, 『世宗實錄』 地理志)
The Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea (Sinjeung dongguk yeoji seungnam), published in the sixteenth century, is considered one of the two most important geographical texts of the early Joseon Dynasty, alongside the Geographical Appendix to the Annals of King Sejong (Sejong sillok jiriji), written a century earlier. Although they share the same subject, the two texts differ significantly in their purpose and organization. The primary difference is in the way they document local products. For instance, the Geographical Appendix to the Annals of King Sejong covers four or five local product categories for each do (道) and for the smaller administrative districts known as gun (郡) and hyeon (縣). The section on local products was essentially a categorized record of items collected from each region as a form of tax. However, the comparable section in the Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea discusses items under the comprehensive category of tosan (土産) or 'local goods.' In addition, the preface and usage guide that precede the main text do not mention which specific local goods are included. This paper examines the items listed in the Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea and seeks to assess the accuracy of the documentation. To this end, information about the local products in this text were compared to those in the Geographical Appendix to the Annals of King Sejong as well as later geographical literature covering the whole of Korea, such as the Geography of Korea (Dongguk yeojiji) and Cultural Geography of Korea (Yeoji doseo). Other local publications (eupji, 邑誌) from the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries with a limited geographical scope were also compared to gain a wider perspective. It was found that the Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea focused only on products associated with specific regions, while excluding commodities that were more widely grown, such as grains. In addition, it recorded only goods that were actually produced in each region rather than all of the goods a local community was required to deliver as tribute to the royal court and the central government. Notably, the Revised and Augmented Survey only documents raw commodities and not their derivatives in the form of intermediate or finished goods. The items mentioned in this text overlap significantly with those in other geographical texts published one or two centuries later. This indicates that the Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea was precise in its account of what was being produced in the various regions of the Joseon Dynasty in the sixteenth century. This differs from the Annals of King Sejong, in which goods are organized according to the system of tribute tax; this document was written for a distinct purpose, and the practice of tribute collection had evolved over time.
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