라인홀드 니버의 죄 개념에 대한 미국윤리학계의 수직적, 수평적 논쟁과 이의 비판적 분석: 한인 이민자 여성들의 경험을 중심으로
Vertical and Horizontal Criticisms of Western Feminist Ethicists on Reinhold Niebuhr's Thought of Sin and Their Critical Analysis on the Basis of the Experiences of Korean Immigrant Women
The purpose of this essay is to explore feminist ethicists' criticisms on Reinhold Niebuhr's thought of sin and Niebuhrian ethicists' responses. In order to pursue the purpose, the paper reviews some important literatures by Christian feminists, womanist, Hispanic as well as Christian realists. This research leads to the suggestion of the development of a new concept of women's sin in reflections of the experiences of Korean immigrant women in U.S. society. Working in the critical literature reviews, “vertical criticism” is employed to explain the critiques of white feminist ethicists directed to Niebuhr's concept of sin exclusively. Vertical critics argue that Niebuhr's thought of sin as pride is inappropriate to explain women' sin is based on the unique experience of women. On the other hand, “horizontal criticism” is used to describe the critical and constructive debates between the feminist as vertical critics and Niebuhrian scholars. Horizontal criticism claims that vertical criticism not only misunderstands Niebuhr's theology but also misrepresents the experiences of the racial minorities. In order to find the applicability of these arguments to the experiences of Korean immigrant women, this paper critically evaluates these “vertical” and “horizontal” debates from the perspective of Korean immigrant women who are suffered from complex discriminatory conditions such as patriarchal ideology from Korean culture and white racism pervasive in U.S. society. This essay concludes that white feminist arguments are less appropriate than those of womanist and Hispanic ethicists in consideration of the socio-political situations of Korean immigrant women. Therefore, it argues that a concept of women's sin must be redefined and reconstructed to embrace the experiences of Korean immigrant women in the critical consideration of sexism, patriarchism, classism, and racism in unjust social structures.
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