속죄론적 십자가 죽음 이해에 대한 비판적 논고
A Critical Appraisal of Satisfaction/ Penal Substitution Understanding of the Cross
The Bible states that we humans are sinful and this sinfulness has separated us from God. Yet the Bible also confirms that in and through the death of Jesus we are forgiven and the penalty of sin has forever eradicated. However, the New Testament does not present a single answer about how and why the death of Jesus is salvific and thus there have been numerous views and models to explain the soteriological meaning of the cross. Gustaf Aulen summarized these views as classic type, Latin type, and subjective type. Among them the Korean Church in general accepts the Latin type, that is, the Anselmian satisfaction/penal substitution model which considers the death of Jesus as a sacrificial offering to propitiate/ expiate God. However, many theologians of today challenge this dominant view. This paper surveys and evaluates these criticisms. It contends that although the Latin type has some weakness in explaining the meaning of the death of Jesus, it must be preserved as an important understanding of the meaning of the cross in that it has a firm biblical basis. Furthermore, this paper argues that some modified Christ the Victor model(the classic type), which sees the life and death of Jesus as the victory over Satan(structural evil), needs to be more emphasized for the renewal and transformation of the Korean Church.
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