東周式 銅劍의 기원과 발전
The origin and development of Dongzhou-type Bronze Double-edged Swords
The bronze double-edged sword appeared in relatively late period among the bronze weapons, and it had its heyday in Dongzhou period when was final step of culture of bronze ware. In each region of China, the various type of double-edged sword was developed, but this paper limited the category to the Doungzhou-type bronze double-edged sword which developed in relatively limiting region around the Central Plan of midstream region of Huanghe River and Jiangnan of downstream region of Yangzi River. The Dongzhou-type bronze double-edged sword is an interesting subject in terms of taking a broad view on the development of ancient culture in East Asia, but as it was excavated intermittently, we need to understand the sword concretely. This paper aimed to understand the context that the bronze double-edged sword appeared in the main region of Chinese civilization and it developed in Dongzhou-type bronze double-edged sword, and grasp the contents of its primary type and development aspect. Entered the Doungzhou period, the tank warfare, which was the main method of war in period of Shangzhou Dynasty. declined, and the infantry war rose sharply. The sword was the most useful weapon to infantry war. The full-scale development of this bronze double-edged sword was closely related with this chronological change. Moreover, the downstream region of Yanzi River, so-called Jiangnan region influenced this change. The region of Jiangnan was not suitable for the tank warfare because of many river and marsh, so from early times the bronze double-edged sword was made for the infantry warfare. By the Chunqiu period, as the Central Plain and Jiangnan began to contact each other, it gave a stimulus to develop the bronze double-edged sword in Central Prain. The innovation of method of war occurred in Chunqiu period served as a momentum to make various type of bronze double- edged sword in Central Plain and Jiannan. In Central Plain and Jiangnan, the inheritances of Western Zhou period which preceded in each region were succeeded, and different type of sword was made. The bronze double-edged sword developed in earnest standardized in three different type of Dongzhou-type bronze double-edged sword. This standardized bronze double-edged sword used in common in main region of Chinese civilization around the hydrosphere of Huanghe River and Yangzi River. The standardization, of course, was not only feature of the bronze double-edged sword. The structure of bronze double-edged sword developed to improve the killing power, that is, the length of bronze double-edged sword became longer from 20cm to 40cm. The bronze double-edged sword, which excluded the every bit of decorative element, was produced in quantity, and it became the standard equipment of infantry army. And the bronze double-edged sword produced in We and Yue in quantity, which were in possession of key technology of production, was distributed in Central plain as well as Jiangnan. The bronze double-edged sword completed in the late of Chunqiu period used consistently in Warring States period without the changes of its type. By the middle of Warring States period, the body of sword longer than 60cm appeared frequently, all of did not have this feature. The Dongzhou-type bronze double-edged sword left a little trace in Han period when replaced bronze double-edged sword with steel sword. However, it did not mean that the bronze Dongzhou-type bronze double-edged sword used as an universal weapon till then.
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