This paper focuses on 'criminal liability' and 'civil liability' based on their role and limitations. The underlying point is that the former should be established by centering on offenders and the latter established by considering the victims, in light of the increasing demand to effectively prevent acts that are legally and socially condemned. The fact that criminal liability has been dealt with more than civil liability in courtrooms implies that civil liability is not performing its intended function and role as expected. However, the fact that a suspended execution, rather than a prison sentence, is considered in the assessment of 'criminal liability' make it most likely that the scope of 'criminal liability' has unreasonably expanded and the social resources for criminal outcomes have been wasted. Recent discussions on the introduction of a 'punitive damages' system and 'increase of solatium' offer a glimpse as to the underlying problem related to civil liability, namely, not living up to social expectations in effectively preventing tortious acts. In that sense, one possible solution for enhancing the preventive impact of civil liability is to considerably increase the amount of damages that may be awarded to victims of tort.
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