작업치료에서의 홀리스틱 접근의 적용 방안 탐색
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The purpose of this research are to state relationship and analyze common components between a holistic approach and occupational therapy, to state a necessity of holistic approach in occupational therapy and to reveal a holistic treatment principle and the role of therapist in order to apply a holism which have been studied on a recent medical science and pedagogy to occupational therapy step for step. To achieve the purpose of study, Literatures on holistic in a recent medical science, pedagogy and occupational therapy were investigated and six frames of analysis were set up. These six frames of analysis were criteria that distinguish between holism and reductionism and analyze occupational therapy models and approaches to categorize which is holism or reductionism. Holistic components in treatment models and approaches were put together to reveal holistic approach principles and roles of therapist. The result is following. First, Occupational therapy has much similarity with holistic concepts. What is more, Occupational therapy follow holistic in point of the viewpoint of human, interaction between human and environment and internal process for changing and monitoring. There are many holistic concepts in models and approaches and there models which regard holistic as the main concept of treatment with recognizing scientific and specific reductionism in occupational therapy. Second, The principle applying a holistic approach to occupational therapy is to provide purposeful activities that drive active participation and motivation of patient, to supply opportunities that acquire self-efficacy and self-satisfaction through metacognition such as self-regulation, self-control and self monitoring and to guide the powers latent within patient to maximize resident patient's ability and minimize patient's limitation through coordination and balance between internal faculties and environments. Occupational therapy has to focus that a treatment processing is more important than result. and a qualitative change more important than a quantitative change. Above all, Therapy has to focus a generalization ability in various and complex situations, make new habits of life to balance among occupational performance areas and coordinate among occupational performance components. For the purpose of realizing these principles in Korea. A external main cause interrupt a holistic approach have to be reformed. Above all, A state operated welfare facilities and rehabilitation center should be expanded and professionalist such as occupational therapist should employ much. Specially, Occupational therapy facility should be established and occupational therapist be dispositioned for a public health center which provide health service for a community. Each professionalist should be closely connected mutually about the assessment contents and treatment progress of patient. Medical expense contents should be improved for to supply qualitative service with disabled persons. Treatment context and purposeful activity or task should be set up just like real life which is work, activity of daily living, leisure and so on. Evaluation tools and method suited to a holistic approach should be developed and improved. Third, the role of therapist is to have attitude interpreting patient never focal being or disability but whole or integrative being. Therapist have to make patient to recover his role at best and practice a client-centered treatment. Finally therapist should have relations with patients as treatment partner and magnify their autonomy.