推論意味에 關한 硏究
- 원문 URL
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the inferred meaning, which is the meaning conveyed by an uttered sentence. Those inferred meanings include entailment, presupposition, and implicature. In this thesis, I try to make clear the distinction among these meanings, clarifying each of these inferred meanings based on many examples. Based on the idea that semantics is concerned with sentence-meaning and pragmatics is concerned with utterance-meaning, I also discuss how they could be used appropriately. The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter One introduces the goals and methods of the thesis and presents its organization. Chapter Two provides an account of the notions of entailment and presupposition. After I divide the concept of presupposition into the semantic and the pragmatic one, I show that certain problems with the semantic presupposition could be settled by the pragmatic presupposition, where both felicity condition and speaker's presupposition are important. I also show that presupposition is related to certain lexical items such as presupposition verbs and implicative verbs. Then I deal with projection, a peculiar phenomenon of presupposition observed in the compound sentence. I survey diverse approaches to the projection problem, which include: (1) a semantic approach that relies on semantic feature of the main clause predicate; (2) one of three pragmatic approaches that, as explained by Dinsmore(1979), makes use of the context, felicity condition, speaker's belief, and old information; the cancellation theory which, as proposed by Gazdar(1979), introduces the notion of potential presupposition and actual presupposition; a pragmatic approach which, as explained by Heim(1983), makes use of the context change potentials; and (3) dynamic semantics, a new approach which is proposed by Chierchia(1995). Assuming that sentences are interpreted as update functions, I discuss the role of various sentential operators. Chapter Three shows the notion of implicatures, surveying the features of distinct types. After I review the maxims by Grice(1975), I stress the importance of metalinguistic negation. Then I discuss the two versions of the approach to the implicature theory: one that is made by Levinson(1987, 2000) and the other by Horn(1984, 1989, 1991). The last chapter concludes the thesis with a summary of the discussions made in the previous chapters.