초등교사의 자기연수에 대한 문화 기술적 연구
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This study is an ethnographic research designed to clarify the reasons, contents, methods and problems of self-training which is applied to elementary school teachers for the quality improvement of those teachers and elementary education, and provide a future direction of such training. The study was conducted by using participatory observation and interviews. The former was carried out at a place of self-training between June and September. And the latter was made between a school inspector and teachers on one-to-one basis as part of the basic investigation of the types and contents of self-training. 12 teachers were designated as interviewees through such observation and a first session of interviews. They participated in a second session of interviews in order that the reasons, contents, methods, problems and future direction of self-training could be clarified and analyzed. Results of the study can be described as follows ; First, the foremost reason why elementary school teachers participated in self-training was the improvement of ways of instruction, followed by skills development, interest, merits acquisition for promotion and establishment of educational theories. It is unfortunate that teachers having a longer teaching experience can have only a shorter field application of the contents of self-training, though such training helps acquire merits for promotion. Thus self-training should become more various in content according to its reasons. Second, most of the contents of self-training for elementary school teachers were occupied by ways of instruction, followed by information-orientation, educational theories, foreign languages and many different practices. The reason why self-training focuses primarily on ways of instruction is probably because such content is most supported by educational institutions and teachers themselves. Information-orientation and foreign languages are contained in the contents of self-training as a result of changes in educational policies and teachers' consciousness. However, there were few elementary school teachers who participated in many different practices. This indicates the necessity of increase in practices as relevant to elementary education. Third, the methods of self-training for the teachers surveyed here include lecture and practice, reading, the use of mass media, discussion and activity, research and field inspection. Among these methods, lecture and practice need to be improved, for self-training should be based on activities by teachers themselves. Teachers who had a longer teaching experience more preferred the use of mass media. In relation, the use should be interactive for making self-training more effective. While, teachers having a shorter teaching experience more preferred discussion and activity, suggesting that the orientation of self-training moves from lecture and practice to activity. Fourth, problems with self-training included too excessive time and expense spent, inappropriate methods and contents, poor training environments, poor support by authorities concerned and poor attitudes about self-training. Many of the teachers suggested more positive and progressive attitudes about self-training. They also responded that the methods and contents of self-training should be teacher-oriented. Too excessive time and expense spent were more remarkable when many different courses of job training and seminars were hosted by authorities concerned. Many of the teachers as surveyed here pointed out that independent researches as part of self-training needed too much time and expense. This suggests that educational institutions should provide training opportunities and supports more positively. This study needs to be supplemented in the following ways. First, this study was made on a school inspector and 13 elementary school teachers in a particular region from a microscopic approach. Related materials and sources should be sufficiently reviewed and compared to generalize the study. Second, The study was carried out over a relatively short period. And those teachers as studied here were reluctant to frankly express their opinions. Nevertheless, this study would be very significant in promoting self-training for elementary school teachers because it sufficiently represents realities through participatory observation and interviews.