유아특수교육 발전에 관한 연구 : 제도·법령 및 교육과정 변천을 중심으로
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This paper studies on the process of development of special education for early childhood, focused upon changes in institution, legislation and curriculum, by using related data and literature. The purpose of special education for early childhood is to promote normal growth of early children, to minimize their handicaps and to prevent second handicaps from occurring. For this purpose, one must discover as early as possible the existence of handicaps and to offer timely education services. An institutional development has been made : the creation of section for early childhood in each special school has been encouraged after the middle of the 1980s ; the Law of Promotion of Special Education, revised in 1994, adopted the principle of gratis offer of education course for early childhood ; a rule about creation of institutions was established to make possible an increasement of special education institutions for early childhood and also that of special classes set up in normal schools. However, the degree of dependence upon private sector is very high. The number of early childhood receiving a special education service is 1,765 persons, but there are only 47 instructors with first or second grade of special education for early childhood all over the country. Now, about 7,000 handicapped infant and early children, excluded from gratis education service system, are educated in private institutions. Special Education Promotion Law aims to offer knowledge and competence necessary to social life of children handicapped mentally and/or physically and to promote activities concerning such special education. This law has been amended for eight times till now according to changes and development in all sectors of the society such as political, economic and social ones. The education process of special schools, established in 1967, has been revised many times according to circumstances of each period. Its sixth total revision created a system establishing national criteria and decentralization of decisions, reflecting demand for qualitative changes of education and importance of early education to establish for the first time course of study for early childhood. The seventh amendment of education process let education receivers on the core of national-wide system : the need of early education and of education focused upon life was emphasized, the scope of children who must have course of study for early childhood expanded, and the length of time of education was extended to 1-3 years. In order to put in operation a public service system of early mediation and complementary education for infant and early children who need special education services destined to them, it should be accompanied with necessary budgetary funds. An improvement of handicaps and a progress in the quality of life both of infant and early children themselves and of other members of their families should be made by completing administrative and institutional systems which can give to all infant and early children handicapped an equal occasion to receive benefices of public education. For this purpose, the majority of early children handicapped should be covered by public education system, and infant children can be received gratis education in a national or public nursery school.