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탐사보도 프로그램 제작과정의 통제의 특성과 영향에 관한 연구 : MBC-tv 사례를 중심으로 원문보기
Study on the Characteristics of Control and Influence In the Process of Making an Investigative Reporting Program

  • 저자

    김미라

  • 학위수여기관

    이화여자대학교 대학원

  • 학위구분

    국내석사

  • 학과

    신문방송학과

  • 지도교수

  • 발행년도

    2000

  • 총페이지

    x, 110p.

  • 키워드

    탐사보도 프로그램;제작과정;PD 수첩;

  • 언어

    kor

  • 원문 URL

    http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T8951083&outLink=K  

  • 초록

    매스 미디어와 이를 둘러싼 권력의 통제는 매스 미디어 생산과정에 관한 연구에있어서 중요한 연구분야이다. 이것은 미디어에 대한 조직 외부나 내부의 압력과 로비 등의 통제가 제작과정에서 하나의 제약요인으로 작용하여 미디어의 생산물에 영향을 미치고, 그 결과 내용을 왜곡시키는 부정적인 영향을 줄 수 있기 때문이다. 특히 우리는 오랜 독재정권의 영향으로 매스 미디어에 대한 정치적 통제가 계속돼 왔기 때문에 이런 통제로부터의 독립과 자율성 확보가 미디어 종사자들에게는 오랜 열망이자 과제였다. 그런데 독재정권이 종식되고 문민정부가 들어선 최근에도 방송에 대한 외압과 로비 등의 통제는 끊임없이 계속되고 있으며, 이들 통제가 제작의 자율성을 위축시킬 만큼 위험 수위를 넘고 있는 현실이다. 특히 이런 방송사 외부와 조직 내부로부터 오는 통제들은 권력과 사회 비리, 부정부패 등을 파헤쳐 미디어의 환경감시적 기능을 수행해야 할 탐사보도 프로그램의 자율성과 공공성을 해치는 중대 요인이 되는 것으로 지적돼 왔다. 그런데 기존의 탐사보도 프로그램 제작과정에서의 통제에 대한 연구들은 몇가지 사례를 연구대상으로 한 참여관찰 등에 국한돼 있어 전반적인 통제 양상을 아는 데는 한계가 있었다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 담당 PD들에 대한 설문조사를 통해 탐사보도 프로그램 제작과정에서의 통제의 빈도, 주체, 방법, 전달 경로와 개입 단계, 그리고 통제의 개입결과 발생한 영향의 정도, 통제의 극복 요인 등을 살펴 보았다. 또 통제가 제작과정에서 어떤 제약요인으로 작용하고 있는지를 살펴 보기 위해 내용분석을 통한 주제 유형별, 구성 방식별, 주요 취재대상의 계층에 따른 통제의 특성들을 분석하였다. 이를 위해 국내의 대표적인 탐사보도 프로그램이라고 할 수 있는 MBC-TV 에서 최근 5년간


    Mass media and the authorities' control over it are one of the crucial fields in the research on the production process of mass media. This is because any control, pressure from inside and outside a broadcasting corporation and lobbying, can function as a stumbling block and affect the outcome of program production and as a result it can distort the content of a program. In particular, since our long period of dictatorial governments had wielded political control over the mass media, people in the media had eagerly longed for independence from this control and for a secure autonomy. However, even today when the dictatorship has been abolished and a civil government is in power, it is a regrettable fact that the external pressure and lobbying on broadcasting has continued and this control is so powerful that it can lessen the autonomy of program productions. Above all, it has been indicated that this control from inside and outside a broadcasting corporation has been highly detrimental to the autonomy and public characteristics of investigative reporting programs which are supposed to uncover injustice and corruption of authority and society and perform the role of an environmental watchdog. Meanwhile, the present results of research on the control over the production process of investigative reporting programs have been limited as an overall understanding of the controlled situation because they have only focused on participant observations of several cases. Therefore, in this study, I have taken a broader look at the frequency of control, subjects, methods, order of transmission routes, the intrusive phase, and the degree of influence after the intrusive control and overcoming factors of control through a questionnaire given to the producers of the concerned programs. In addition, I have analyzed the characteristics of control according to subject types, organizational methods, and stratification of major interviewees in order to examine how the control sets limits to the production process. For this, I have analyzed 264 editions of the program on MBC-TV which is one of the representative investigative reporting programs in Korea. The sample shows I chose were broadcast over the past five years from July 1, 1995 to June 30, 2000 and revealed features of control in the actual production process. The main research points of this study are as follows: First, what are the general characteristics of the control revealed in the production process of the program? Second, what influence has affected the actual program by the intrusive control and what factors regulated the degree of influence? Third, if the intrusion of control has no influence, what are the determining factors? Four, according to subject types, organization methods, stratification of major interviewees, how different were the features of control? After an analysis, based on the above-mentioned points, I found that the cases of involvement of control were 50.0% of the entire object of this study, 40.2 % of which were shown to be influenced by intrusive control. In short, control over the investigative reporting program turned out to be of critical importance. Among the subjects of control, unlike past practice, while sources and interviewees for news gathering still topped the list, and the control inside the organization, political control over the government, national institutions, political parties and politicians remained the second highest, control by sponsors appeared relatively trivial. In the control methods, it was revealed that strict measures above the level of threats were taken in more than 50% of cases and, in particular, legal responses such as petitions for provisional disposition or prohibiting telecasting have been increased. Factors affecting the results of control have emerged as the subject of control, the process of transmission, the intrusive phase of control. For the subject of control, those from inside the organization had the greatest influence while individuals such as sources and interviewees for news gathering showed a higher frequency of intrusion but had little influence. Besides, the higher the position of inside gatekeepers who deliver the external pressure or lobbying, and the earlier control entered the production of a program, the greater its influence was. There was a case in which the control did not affect an actual program. Among the determining factors, the production crew's insistence and protest were the most important while support from the director of the bureau and the chief producer (CP) was rather weak and the president and management scarcely disputed the control. However, it was discovered that the role of the inside gatekeepers functioned as the most crucial element in maintaining the autonomy and independence of broadcasting, for the influence of control became higher when control from inside went together with that from outside rather than there being external pressure alone. In the characteristics of control according to subject types, items of particular injustice and accidents received the greatest intrusion of control. The degree of the influence on the program after the involvement of control appeared the highest in political items and in the items of environmental supervision dealing with public affairs such as current social issues. Another remarkable result of this research is that it reaffirms that control has a close relation with authority. Thus, after viewing the stratified characteristics of the objects of news gathering, the frequency of control by individuals or institutions of authority was noted as the highest and the influence of their control on the program was also the greatest. In particular, it is shown that when the authority was the object of news gathering, the control of the inside gatekeepers was simultaneously introduced. Therefore, in order to overcome the influence of control-pressure and lobbying-over investigative reporting programs, it is a prerequisite that changes in the conception and active response of gatekeepers such as the president, management, director of the concerned bureau, and the chief producer should be encouraged. Moreover, it is revealed that while the production crew could successfully overcome the control from the source and interviewees for gathering news, they were still under the control of higher authorities including political authorities or specialist groups, and inside control. In order to maintain the autonomy of productions, it can be a realistic alternative to make a systematic protest and take measures through the broadcasting labor union and various professional groups.


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