여대생의 미용 행태 및 그에 따른 건강 위해 실태 조사
(A) Research on the Patterns of College Women's Beuty Care and the Resultant Health Hazards
여대생;미용 행태;건강 위해;
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여성의 사회 참여 증가와 가구 소득의 향상은 여성들의 미용에 대한 관심과 투자를 확산시키고 있다. 그래서 현대의 대다수의 여성은 화장, 피부관리, 체중·체형관리, 헤어관리에 관심을 가지고 있거나 시행하고 있으며, 미용성형도 확산되는 추세이다. 이런 현상에서 상업적 목적을 위한 광고나 용모에 관한 지나친 관심으로 인해서 건강에 관한 위해의 정도가 검증되지 않은 미용 행위들이 이루어지고 있는 문제점이 있다. 그러므로 전체 여성 중 미용 행위가 활발한 여대생의 미용 행태를 파악하고, 그에 따른 건강 위해 실태를 파악하며, 미용 행태와 건강 위해의 관련성을 조사하기 위한 목적으로 본 연구는 시도되었다. 본 연구는 서울지역에 소재하고 있는 A 여자대학교와 B 남녀공학대학교의 여대생을 대상으로 학년구분 없이 각각 450명씩 총 900명을 임의로 선정하여 2000년 10월 6일부터 25일까지 20일 동안 설문조사 하였다. 설문지는 본 조사를 실시하기 전 2000년 9월 4일부터 9일까지 6일 동안 30명의 여대생을 대상으로 예비조사를 실시하여 수정과 보완을 통해 문항에 대한 신뢰도와 타당도를 높였다. 수집된 자료는 SPSS/PC Package를 이용해 분석하였으며 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 응답자의 일반적인 특성으로 연령은 평균 21세였으며, 전공은 문과 58.9%로 가장 많았고, 경제수준은 중이 85.3%로 가장 많았고, 자신이 보통 이상의 건강상태라고 답한 학생이 94.2% 였고, 한달 평균 지출 미용평균은 만원에서 5만원 사이가 전체의 56.5%로 가장 많았다. 학교에 따라 미용비용은 통계적으로 상관이 있으며(χ²=12.030, P
With the increase of women's involvement in social activities and the improvement of family income, women's concern about and investment in beauty care are proliferating. Most of modern women are concerned about or carrying out makeup, skin care, weight/body control, and hair care, so cosmetic operations are flourishing. However, the problem is that, due to the commercial pursuit of beauty industry and human beings' excessive concern about appearance, unverified beauty care services that might harm our health are being performed. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the patterns of college women's beauty care since the degree of their using beauty care services is the highest among the whole female population, examine the actual health hazards in those services, and finally survey the relationship between beauty care service and health hazard. For this study, 450 college women at A women's university and another 450 co-eds at B mixed university located in Seoul area, 900 college women in total, were selected at random regardless of school year to reduce statistical deviation. As the subject, they underwent a questionnaire research for 10 days from Oct. 6 to 25, 2000. The trustworthiness and validity of question items had been heightened through revision and supplement on a preliminary survey carried out to about 30 college women for 6 days from Sept. 4 to 9, 2000. Collected data were analyzed through SPSS/PC Package, and the results are as follows: 1. As for the general characteristics of the respondents, the mean age was 21, the highest 58.9% of them majored in liberal arts, the highest 85.3% were in the middle economic level, 94.2% answered their health conditions were above the mean, and 56.5% reported that they spent 10-50 thousand wons on beauty care per month. It was revealed that 58.2% of them got information on beauty care through mass communications. 2. As for the beauty care patterns, makeup accounted for 78.6%, Skin care 49.5%, weight/body control 32.0%, hair care 81.5%, and cosmetic operation 14.9%, indicating significant high rates of makeup(x²=9.215, p=0.002) and hair care(x²=4.435, p=0.035) at both mixed and women's universities. 3. The relationship between the perceived level of satisfaction with body image and utilization of beauty care services was examined, using χ² test. The weight control behavior was found to be related to the perceived level of satisfaction with body image. However, the other beauty care activities, such as make-up, skin care, and plastic operations, were not found to be related to the perceived level of satisfaction with body image. 4. As for the health hazards in beauty care, problems were mostly related to makeup(67.4%), while serious physical damages occurred mostly in relation to weight/body control(17.6%). As for the frequency of occurrence, the mean number of health problem was 1.3, while that of serious physical damage was 0.2. The relationships between health problems and utilization of beauty care services were examined, using χ² test or t test. We found that there was a significant relationship between health problem and beauty care. 5. The respondents generally did basic makeups(40.1%) twice a day(52.0%), did color makeups for going out of doors(37.5%), and used domestic cosmetics(33.1%). As for the health hazards from makeup, temporary side effects accounted for 65.9%, while permanent damages accounted for 1.7%. Serious physical damages occurred mostly by body paints(9.3%) and foreign cosmetics(11.6%). As health problems, growing sensitiveness and functional weakness of skin accounted for the highest 44.7% and even dermatitis, eczema and scar accounted for 6.3%. 6. Skin care was mostly taken to remove pimples(27.8%) and specks(23.1%) on the face or for whitening effect(26.4%) once a week(33.6%) mainly at home(84.8%). As for the health hazards from skin care, temporary side effects accounted for 32.8%, while permanent damages accounted for 1.3%. Serious physical damages occurred mostly at the skin care service center(16.4%). As symptoms of health problem, growing sensitiveness and functional weakness of skin(37.6%) and itch or urticaria accounted for high rates(33.5%). 7. Weight/body control was mostly tried to lose weight(50.3%) or for beauty's sake(22.4%) more than once a week(32.5%) mainly through dietary cure(40.5%), exercise or use of health machines(36.3%) and walking(16.9%). As for the health hazards from weight/body control, temporary side effects accounted for 44.2%, while permanent physical damages accounted for 5.5%. As major health problems, there were headache or dizziness(28.2%), gastroenteric disorder(18.1%), anemia or menstrual irregularity(17.0%), and oversensitiveness or insomnia(11.2%). 8. The college women generally had their hair waved(68.8%), cut(62.9%), or dyed and coated(62.7%) at least once in 2 or 3 months(69.7%). Temporary side effects of hair care accounted for 47.3%, while permanent damages didn't appear. As major heath problems, the respondents complained loss of hair, weakness of hair(53.0%), itch of head skin, and urticaria(18.9%). 9. The college women chiefly underwent cosmetic operations to get double eyelids(55.3%) or remove spots(29.1%), and some of them even had breast plastic operations and face or obesity correction operations. Operations were mainly performed by doctors at medical institutes(99.1%). Temporary side effects of cosmetic operation accounted for 9.9%, while permanent damages accounted for 3.6%. As major health problems, the respondents complained abnormal scar(25.0%), mental or emotional disorder(25.0%), and growing sensitiveness of skin(12.5%). 10. The rate of receiving health education related to beauty care was a low 18.9%, but the rate of recognizing the necessity of this education was a high 93.6%. The respondents reported that they received educations on weight/body control(32.7%), cosmetic operations(20.1%), use of cosmetics(19.5%), skin care(18.8%), and hair care(8.6%).