韓國 敎育自治制의 問題點과 改善 方案
(A) study on problems and improvement of educational autonomy system in Korea
ii, 64 p.
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The educational autonomy system is based upon the decentralization of educational administration and has the official rights of autonomy and administration about education and literary accomplishments through separating the educational administration from the general one. It also sets up the board of education as a legislative organ and elects the superintendent of educational affairs as an executive organ of the determined educational policies. By establishing the autonomous rights of finance and personnel management, it trys to guarantee the autonomy, the specialty and the political neutrality of educational administration, and thereby induces the inhabitants' participation and the special management. The aim of the study is as follows: 1. To survey the meaning and the concept of the educational autonomy system, which enables us to grasp the problems of Korean educational autonomy system and present the ways to improve. 2. To compare Korean educational autonomy system with that of advanced nations, extracting and analyzing the various problems. 3. To suggest the most suitable and feasible educational autonomy system of Korea which can cope with the new trends of education. The theoretical background of the educational autonomy system is extracted from the published theses and bibliography, and the historical consideration of the educational autonomy system is based upon the preceding studies of relevant field. In order to present the ways of improving the current educational autonomy system, major problems and issues presented in various forums, seminars and recent publications are analyzed. The educational autonomy system is the administrative system and organization which institutionally guarantees the inhabitants' participation and the control of masses for the democratization and the speciality of education. Accordingly, decentralization and the control of masses are essential for the reflex of public opinion and self-regulation. To achieve them, a self-governing right should be given widely to the local educational administration and by transfering the central administrative affairs sharply the local educational autonomy and the local speciality are to be assured. And also the educational autonomy of basic unit should be enforced as soon as possible, and the character and the function of a board of education should be rearranged. A board of education plays a role as a path in reflecting the public opinion. To achieve that function the education committee should be elected directly by inhabitants and the n]umber of education committee should be decided flexibly in proportion to the population of city and province along with the existing one. It is significant that for the local educational autonomy the propriety of authority and responsibility between central educational institution and local one should be made according to the principle of decentralization. It is also important that the decentralization of educational operation should be made clearly by transfering the educational affairs to the local educational institution except for the educational policies or affairs which require nationalwide unification and mediation. Furthermore, it is needed that the local educational institution has the initiative and the right of voting with respect to the independence of local finance. The local assembly should have the right to deliberate budget only about the self-bearing school expenses and reorganize the tax system toward the increase of independent educational finance. Personnel management system of education should be enforced by the principle of autonomous operation and need of each local self-governing body. Local self-governing body of education must have the right to enforce personnel management through the autonomous enactment of ordinance. The ultimate goal of educational autonomy system lies in the development of school education, so that the autonomous operation of each school is by far the most important. Of course, the conversion of thoughts of principals and teachers should be followed, and the participation of inhabitants and parents activated. Finally, it should be considered that the educational autonomy system has to be taken gradual steps considering the current problems, not on the basis of short-term angles but on the long-term ones which accept positively growing values such as diversification, openness, democratization and globalization. The educational autonomy system is not the end itself but the means to extend better education. However, the educational autonomy system should be a stronghold for the realization of democratic educational administration and the effective operation of national education. But in reality on account of the educational system centering on administration the introduction of true educational autonomy system is very difficult in such a short period. It is hoped that the insurance of enough educational finance, the security of speciality of educational administration and the efforts of government and inhabitants for the democratic autonomous system should be followed.