韓國 敎育自治制의 發展方向에 관한 硏究
A study in the development of the Korean educational self-governing system
iii, 77 p.
- 원문 URL
The education self-governing system is one which guarantees the independence, the professionality, and the political neutrality of education by practicing educational policies which is suitable for the local peculiarity and enhances its residents' consciousness of participation through the separation of local educational system from the central government. The operation of educational self-governing system is based on the following four principles; the decentralization of power, the residents' control, the separation and independence of educational administration, and the professional management. The focus of this study is on finding out the problems of existing educational self-governing system by contemplating the development procedures of our country's and foreign countries' educational self-governing systems and then on presenting the right courses in its improvement which are adequate for coming twenty first century. The mayor problems of existing educational self-governing system are presented as follows. first, the laws on existing local educational self-governing system are violating the legislative power, the financial power, and the organizational power of educational self-governing, In other words, the original meaning on educational self-governing is disappearing since the local assembly decides on the law-making and the budget planning and consulting. Also, it is wrong for the independence, the professionality, and the political neutrality of education that the central government practices the personnel management right about vice superintendents of educational affairs and secretary-level public servicemen in city and province educational offices. Second, the implement of educational self-governing is limited to megalopolis unit. It is violating the basic principles of educational self-governing which are the decentralization of power, the residents' control, and the independence of educational administration, because the local educational self-governing without the basic unit only becomes imperfect. Third, the dualization of legislative organ results in the waste of the administrative power, Its overlapping of decision-making and consulting also causes the waste of time and economy. In harmony with educational specialty, educational administrative organizations ought to be separated from the general ones. Forth, there are problems on choosing the group of those who elect superintendents of educational affairs and members of a board of education. The representative aspect of school operation committee, the problem of its democracy, the exclusion of educators from the group electing school management committee, and the provision of educational organizations to only three percents of the group are all contradictory to the principles of educational professionality and independence. Fifth, in electing the members of a board of education, the effects of the electing area's peculiarity and geographical features are too low and too extensive. Sixth, because of the excessive limitation on election campaigns by superintendents of educational affairs and members of a board of education, there are not enough opportunities on taking a close look at educational Philosophy or tendency of the candidates. Educational career of more than five years is possibly the testing stand for political activities of its newcomers. It includes the possibility of the education's politicalization. For removing these problems of educational self-governing and raising creative and independent Koreans for new twenty first century, the right development courses in educational self-governing are presented as follows. First, the implementing range of educational self-governing ought to be extended from megalopolis unit to basic unit Its purpose is for realizing the ideology of democracy through the resident' participation which is essential for local self-governing. Second, the committee of a board of education should be the independent decision-making organization which has more freedom from the local assembly and local self-governing organizations. Third, the elections of superintendents and members of educational boards are basically the direct system where the local residents take part in the election, but the indirect system is suggested where all members of school management committee are the ones of electing group transitionally until the residents' political and democratic abilities are completed. Naturally the achievement of representativeness and democracy is a precondition on the electing procedure and the fixed numbers of electing group of school management committee. Forth, as an election campaign, the candidates for the superintendents and members of educational boards should be able to advertise their educational philosophies or visions. Also, the candidates' Qualifications ought to be more specified and open. Fifth, to obtain the educational finance, the tax rate of education should be increased, and the standards for tax imposing should be extended. And the residents should be able to get a great interest on the education by enlargement of the volunteering donations, Also, the students' tuitions should be gradually put into reality. Last, the present administrative systems, city. county. district educational offices' roles ought to be not the ones of administrative ordering, delivering, and directing forms from the upper level but the ones of educational supporting center which can provide the materials necessary for education so that the teachers will be able to concentrate on educating students. Education is the sound investment for the future. Therefore, the investment should not be focused on a simple logic of marketing economy but be consistently given to the educational systems in a long term. Educational self-governing ought to be handled by the hands of the educational professionalists which are the educators themselves.