초등학교 초임교사의 교직적응 향상 방향에 관한 연구 : 경기도 북부지역 초등학교를 중심으로
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The goal of this study lies in providing basic materials to search the ways how to improve the adaptation process of newly appointed primary school teachers by investigating the difficulties and problems with which newly appointed primary school teachers face on the process of the adaptation for teaching profession and finding out the cause. On the basis of pre-existed studies, I have arranged the concepts which is related to the adaptation process of newly appointed primary teachers and groped for the improvement. This study has been performed by documentary mention and the documents contain domestic pre-existed theses and related data for the status and problems on adaptation process of newly appointed primary school teachers, solution of the problems on the process of adaptation for teaching profession and the improvements of adaptation for teaching profession. The characteristic, problem and solution on the adaptation of newly appointed primary school teachers are analyzed through the study and they are following. First, generally the newly appointed teachers face with most difficulties in performing school affairs whereas they feel least difficulties in teaching students. Second, the chief cause of the difficulties on performing job result from poor condition of school education, a dense class, backward facilities and excessive affairs. Third, to solve the problems on performing job, newly appointed teachers actively ask favors to fellow teachers rather than settle down by themselves. The most favorite subject is senior who seems to have professionality and are familiar to newly appointed teachers. Education administrator are hardly regarded as subject of favor. Meanwhile, teachers who resolve the problems by themselves do not ask for another teachers since they have different teaching methods, class and duty and the teachers experience trial and error. Fourth, adaptation for teaching profession are different depends on the kinds of jobs, the difficulty and adaptation in teaching students are as follow. Generally, newly appointed primary school teachers feel difficulties in teaching students. Especially, they feel hard to teach a problem student in class, prepare class material, concrete the teaching methods and make the class mood desirable whereas they do not feel difficulties so much in making questions for examination and a curriculum. The primary cause which they experience the difficulties results from dense class and backward facilities. To solve the problems, the teachers might refer to special book or experience trial and error or consult with senior general teachers who has professionality and familiar to them. Fifth, when newly appointed teachers perform their job in teaching student, they feel difficulties in guiding the way, realizing each student's character and regulating class whereas they do not feel hard in dong affairs and maintaining facilities. The primary cause is due to excessively many students and sundry duties. To solve the problems, the teachers might refer to special book or experience trial and error or consult with senior general teachers who has professionality and familiar to them. Sixth, in case of school affairs allotment, they experience difficulties in grade allocating, doing affairs and preparing various events, which increase excessive burden of affairs to newly appointed teachers who work beyond their ability to manage only class under their charge. Actually, young primary school teachers usually have been undertaking various events and group guidance which require new technique and more effort. This often results in cause of role conflicts. To solve the difficulties, unreasonable allotment to young teachers should be adjusted flexibly and able teacher who has professionality should participate in managing various events and group guidance. Seventh, they feel difficulties differently in human relationships depends on each teacher. Generally, they has experienced trial and error or relied on past experiences to overcome the difficulties due to different thoughts between faculties. When they ask for fellow's favor, they prefer intimate senior general teachers or same aged teachers. Eighth, newly appointed teachers think that they have disadvantages on work environments and improving professionality in school fields. Since, this is one of the causes which newly appointed teachers experience difficulties in adapting them for teaching profession, education administrator(vice-principal, principal), senior teachers in field should take care and interest for them. Additionally to the above conclusions, I would like to represent some opinions on study. First, while it is not serious, most newly appointed teachers who has career of less than 4 years generally feel difficulties. Also, they feel difficulties differently depends on parts(jobs). School affair allotment is the part which newly appointed teachers feel most difficulties. Especially, newly appointed primary school teachers think they have disadvantages in grade allotment, office work allotment and group guidance. To settle down these difficulties, education administrator(vice-principal, principal), senior teachers in field should take care and interest for them, administration authority need to publish guide book to help newly appointed teachers perform their job and introduce 'on the job training' system. Second, the primary cause of difficulties which newly appointed teachers feel in performing their jobs is the poor conditions of schools of our country's. The cause of difficulties in teaching students results form dense class, backward facilities and poor college education. In managing class, dense class, excessive burden on duties, poor college education and their inabilities are main causes. In allotting school affairs, poor condition of education field and indifferent mood are chief causes. And in human relationship, different thinking ways and thoughts between fellow teachers are the main cause of the difficulties. Therefore, education cannot be performed by only teacher's qualification and devotion anymore. The condition of education should be improved coincidently. Third, newly appointed teachers of our country prefer asking favor to fellow teachers to solving difficulties by themselves. More systematic ways should be set up so that newly appointed teachers consult with senior teachers for how to overcome difficulties. Further, I propose to make program which enable newly appointed teachers to have human relationship with senior teacher whoever s/he wants and arrange regular meeting between newly appointed teachers for them in order to discuss the difficulties and cooperate each other. Fourth, the methods which newly appointed teachers use to perform difficult job in the process of adapting to teaching profession are different depend on adaptation part. Professionality is emphasized in teaching and school affairs whereas intimacy is emphasized in managing class. We can know that expert knowledge and accumulated know-how are not recognized in managing class nevertheless newly appointed teachers feel difficulty and a lot of knowledge and know-how are needed in managing class. The way how to manage class more reasonably and systematically should be studied. The efforts to decrease difficulties of newly appointed teachers by investigating each difficult part and utilizing the methods which preferred by them is required because students should not be the sacrifice of trial & error. Fifth, education administrators- principal, vice-principal - are excluded from the subjects who newly appointed teachers want to consult with as well as they are hard person to access. This means that education administrators are subject which farther than senior teachers in education field. The phenomenon are also reported on foreign studies. Principal and vice-principal are veteran who have a lot of career in education field and subjects which newly appointed teachers should adapt themselves to. Therefore, the roles of principal and vice-principal should be enlarged to encouraging learning area beyond present status of administrative level in order to help newly appointed teachers perform their jobs and adapt themselves to teaching profession. There is a limit on this study as follow. The analysis of problems may not generalized to all newly appointed primary school teachers since it has been done with pre-existed theses and related data. Also, there is a difficulty to draw complete consent to the problems on adaptation to teaching profession because the problems perceived by each teacher are different depend on each part.