파탄잘리 요가와 바시쉬타 요가의 비교 : 해방의 의미와 방법을 중심으로
(The) Comparison Between Patanjali Yoga and Vasistha Yoga
파탄잘리 요가 바시쉬타 해방 실천요가 인도철학;
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Nowadays the counseling methods using yoga are drawing the attention in Psychology, so the psychological studies of yoga are being done actively across the world especially in the West. In this circumstances, I wanted to know what the Liberation, the ultimate goal of yoga, is, hoping to use the results of that finding in school counselling and to find out the new counselling methods. For that purpose, I tried to compare meaning and methods of the Liberation in Patanjali yoga with those in Vasistha Yoga and researched as follows: First, I explained the necessities, the goal, the contents, and the methods of this study. Second, I examined what the Liberation means in Patanjal yoga and Vasistha yoga respectively and tried to find out the implied meaning of Liberation in yoga by comparing what each yoga defines about meaning of the Liberation. Third, I examined the methods for the Liberation described in Patanjali yoga and Vasistha yoga separatively and compared them to find out the common or different methods between them. Fourth, I talked about how the results of this study can be used in the school counseling and expressed my opinion on the meaning of my study in psychotherapy counselling. The following is about the summary of my comparison between Patanjali yoga and Vasistha yoga focused on the meaning and methods of Liberation. First, Patanjali yoga says that the Liberation means the separation of purusa, the Self, from prakriti which represents the material world. The Liberation in Vasistha yoga is an individual ego's attaining to the pure Consciousness. I could see that two yogas have the similar understanding about the Liberation, in that the Liberation in each yoga means the awareness of the Self, or the ultimate, universal and omnipresent Being. The difference between two yogas' explanation is that the Self is termed as purusa in Patanjali yoga and as the pure Consciousness in Vasistha yoga. There are also some dissimilarities in their interpretation about the cause of unawarness, the reality of the world, the singularity or plurality of the Self, and the state of the Liberation. Second, the methods for Liberation are systematically and totally structured in Patanjali Yoga, on the other hand, those in Vasistha yoga are offered circumstantially and liberally. The most emphasized method is the mediation in Patanjali yoga and the intuitive inquiry toward the Self in Vasistha yoga. The methods in each yoga seemed to be made up so as to help one transcend the limitation of the individual human being and attain to the highest achievement he can get. They also have the similarities to let the subject and object of the awareness united. The commonly narrated methods in two yogas are self-effort, righteous actions, learning the scripture about the Self, satisfaction, pranayama, controlling or removing the mind, commitment toward the ultimate Being, and meditation. Purifying inner body, asana and asceticism are methods presented only in Patanjali yoga. On the other hand, I could notice living naturally and inquiry about the Self are the methods found only in Vasistha yoga. The methods for the Liberation in each yoga seem to have been made suitable for the individual person who has his own character and situation. There are also other differences between two yogas' methods. Patanjali yoga has hierarchical system with samadhi on the top of it, so you cannot practise upper methods until finishing the lower ones. Vasistha yoga has no upper or lower methods like Patanjali's. Instead, it demonstrates several methods according to the situation where one belongs. The best way to achieve the Liberation, which is commonly mentioned in two yogas, is the meditation different from the ordinary one you can think of. The meditation as the best method for the Liberation is individualities' resolving into the Self and becoming One with it. I believe the study on the meaning of Liberation will be able to be the solution of problems counselling teachers confront when they encounter and handle the students with the various troubles. Furthermore, it is going to present the new psychotherapy counselling methods based on the belief that every person has the potentiality to be liberated the moment he does realize the real Self. I'm sure the methods for Liberation can be used effectively and practically in group counselling at school and helpful to introduce and fashion the self-therapy theory. The goal of modern psychology is assisting one to overcome the obstacles and to acquire the most valuable accomplishment. With that help, one can change his recognition toward the life, have the positive and desirable outlook and thus control his life at his will. I think that goal will be achieved naturally when the liberation, which is the final and ultimate goal of yoga, can be realized. That was the main reason I started this study. Closing this study, I hope more studies on the Liberation of yoga with psychological approach will be done in the near future so that the abundant knowledge about human beings's mind and spirit in yoga can used practically in psychotherapy counselling.