경상남도 유치원 교육비 결정 요인 분석
(An) Analysis on Determinants of Kindergarten Education Expenses in Gyeongsangnamdo
경상남도 유치원 교육비 결정 요인;
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The purpose of this study is to analyze determinants of expenses for kindergarten education by investigating the educational conditions and expenses and financial structure of kindergartens located in farm and fishing villages, islands and remote places as well as large cities. The study tried to provide an empirical information for the reasonable establishments of kindergarten education expenses and educational finance and basic information for the establishment of early childhood education policies seeking the integration of preschool education into public one, through investigating and comparing kindergarten education expenses spent in farm and fishing villages considering geographical differences and characteristics. For the purpose, this researcher reviewed previous studies and references about financial education and educational economics to know determinants of kindergarten education expenses. General and educational finance statistics were obtained to analyze trends in general and financial conditions of kindergartens. And annual statistical reports and internal resources of finance issued by Gyeongsangnamdo Office of Education Were analyzed and reviewed. Then educational and financial conditions of kindergartens located in Gyeongsangnamdo were examined to analyze determinants of preschool education expenses in the province. For the investigation, this researcher surveyed kindergarten students' teachers and parents in the region. Results of the study can be described as follows. 1. Analysis on Determinants of Kindergarten Education Expenses in Gyeongsangnamdo This study classified the determinants into three, that is, responsibility for educational expenses, competence of teachers and curriculum operation. First, concerning responsibility for educational expenses, the total revenue of kindergartens in Gyeongsangnamdo was 31,426,381,000 won in 2002, up some 1.5 times from 20,235,112,000 in 1998. But the total revenue for 2002 occupied for only 1.42% of the total educational revenue of the province. Most of subsidies by the government and local autonomous bodies are granted to public kindergartens. With little support from outside, most private kindergartens are self-supportive. Second, concerning the competence of teachers, public kindergartens employ 1st-grade regular teachers even more than 2nd-grade ones, and vice versa in private kindergartens. The fact that private kindergarten teachers are shorter in teaching or lower in grade may be attributed to poor financial conditions of private preschool education establishments. Private kindergartens rely on limited financial sources. To survive competition with public kindergartens, private ones cannot avoid lowering personnel expenses, or employing teachers who are shorter in teaching or lower-educated. Teachers are the key to better child education, so their wages should be borne by the state. This is why kindergarten education needs to be urgently integrated into public education. Third, in relation to curriculum operation, both public and private kindergartens in Gyeongsangnamdo lack in most basic facilities for the operation. Most of the kindergartens have few rooms for special use by teachers and educational instruments and equipment. There are few accurate statistics in relation to the curriculum operation. Educational expense and operation cost per children in private kindergartens surveyed here were here examined using expenditure and settlement statements by the institutions. 2. Analysis on Group Responses about Kindergarten Education Expenses Responses by parents and teachers about kindergarten education expenses were analyzed to obtain the following results. First, parents and teachers feel some burden about kindergarten education expenses that are relatively high. They also agreed that difference between private and public kindergarten education expenses should be reduced or the former expenses lowered into the latter. Second, in regard to kindergartens' curriculum operation, lacks in competent teachers, outdoor facilities and play spaces were considered as problem to be most urgently solved. The problems suggest that existing private kindergartens are not properly prepared to implement the 6th national curriculum of education. Teachers were dissatisfied with their wage level and parents, educational expenses, contents and facilities of private kindergartens. Third, parents and teachers all agreed that the opportunity of preschool education should be provided to children more than present. The surveyed people responded that early childhood education should be compulsory, emphasizing the importance and equal opportunity of such education. They responded that it was most desirable early childhood education agencies were established as public educational institutions. Many of the respondents said that private institutions of early childhood education need to be initially incorporated. Based results of the study, the researcher would make the following conclusion. First, cities or provinces having little financial independence like Gyeongsangnamdo should legally establish regional educational subsidies to support expenses for kindergarten education. Second, kindergarten education at least should be treated and controlled by local autonomous bodies, avoiding the central government's regional education finance system. Third, education tax rates should be increased to expand the financial basis of kindergarten education. In particular, the province should adjust the rates in relation to horse-race and tobacco consumption taxes. Fourth, private kindergartens, accounting for 80% of early childhood education in this nation, should be induced to be incorporated, forming fundamentals of kindergarten education finance. Fifth, it is fact that little basic information about kindergarten education is given and the current state of the education is not properly investigated. Therefore, a section of early childhood education needs to be established under Gyeongsangnamdo Office of Education to ensure systematic supports to the finance of kindergarten education. Finally, early childhood education system, whose affairs are treated by Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development and Ministry of Health and Welfare, should be implemented by the former governmental agency exclusively, ensuring consistence in financial supports to kindergarten education.