國民年金制度의 發展方案에 관한 硏究
(A) Reform Proposal for the National Pension System
국민연금제도 발전방안 개혁과정 4대 사회보험;
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The National Pension System in Korea began in 1988. Of course first introduced by the enactment of the National Welfare and Pension Act in 1973. However, due to the oil crises, the system's operation was postponed till 1988. The policy object of the National Pension System (NPS) is to contribute the improvement of welfare of those who contribute to the pension funds. Because the NPS apply the whole nation and the scheme's impact is very great, in proportion to increase of the importance of NPS, so discussed constantcontroversy concerning to the efficient operation and pension reform. With an outlook for the composition of future population and to calculate financial state of the NPS, there has been said the improvement of structural contradiction on the contributions and payments. Because these causes, the NPS's future financial picture does not seem so bright. The previous studies on this issue suggest that the NPS's financial balance will turn negative around the year 2020, and the fund will finally dry up around the year 2031. Therefore, the discussion for pension reform progressed and is on progress in academic circles and political circles etc. Under these background, the first reform of the NPS had accomplished in 1998. But in spite of the pension reform in 1998, there has been said to dry up of the pension funds and to change of the NPS's structure. For the purpose to suggest a reform proposal for the NPS, the three problems are as follow: First, the process of the NPS's development was analyzed. Especially, the problem of the pension reform in 1998 was analyzed. Second, the contents of the pension reform was examined for five nations (Japan, Sweden, Chile, England, Canada. etc). Third, the problems of the NPS was analyzed. Especially, the issue is to dry up of the pension funds. By using above three problems, the results of the proposal for future's pension reform are as follow: First, A plan of the NPS's financial stability was executed first of all. So the balance of the contributions and payments is maintained. and the age for receiving benefits is prolonged more than now. Second, the all social security systems of Korea must be managed efficiently. So national base living security system, enterprise pension system, civil servants pension, military personnel pension, private school teacher's pension and NPS must be connected mutually. Third, the redistribution system of income must be improved for preventing distortion. Fourth, the women's right of the pension benefits must be established sufficiently more than now. Finally, the pension funds must be employed efficiently.