자기초월 의식 접근에 관한 동·서양 심리학의 제 관점 비교
Comparative Study on various views in the Oriental and the Occidental Psychologies on Access to the Self-transcendent Consciousness
자기초월 의식 접근 동양 서양 심리학;
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Today's trend of counselling places more emphasis than before on attempting to utilize the concept of self-transcendence, as a result of expansion of the area of study of human consciousness from personal consciousness to self-transcendent consciousness. The Oriental history has shown active study of the self-transcendent consciousness since long time ago, which, forming a system of psychological theories, has given significant influence on the counselling and the psychotherapy of today. In this context, it is considered worthwhile to build up a new theoretical ground to apply effectively to the counselling and psychotherapeutic practice by comparing the Oriental psychological theories and the Occidental psychological theories, which prevail in the current counselling methodology. The process of building up the new theory requires to seek more extensive methods of access to self-transcendent consciousness by comparing theories of consciousness development in Oriental and Occidental psychological theories. The following two objectives of this study have been set up to compare views on the methods of access to the self-transcendent consciousness in Oriental and Occidental psychological theories. Firstly, to clarify classification of consciousness in Oriental and Occidental psychological theories, and, secondly, to clarify methods of access to self-transcendent consciousness in the theories. To attain the second objective, the following three activities shall be conducted. Firstly, to clarify the motive of access to self-transcendent consciousness, secondly, to clarify the methods of access to self-transcendent consciousness and thirdly, to clarify the route of access to self-transcendent consciousness. This study adopts the bibliographic method. The literature used in this study comprises two thoughts in the Oriental psychology - the Thirty Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness by Basubandhuthe and the Notes by Mandukya Upanisad and Advita Vedanta - and two thoughts in the Occidental psychology - literature by Carl Gustav Jung, an analytical psychologist, and by Ken Wilber, a trans-personal psychologist. This study is summarized as follows: For better understanding of classification of consciousness in the Oriental and Occidental psychologies as the first objective of this study, the awakened or perceptible consciousness is named the "First Consciousness", the ultimate consciousness is named the "Self-transcendent Consciousness" and the consciousness between the First Consciousness and the Self-transcendent Consciousness is named the "Second Consciousness". The concept of the First Consciousness is the one defined as "consciousness" and "ego" by Carl G. Jung, and K. Wilber described it to be composed of several stages - the stage of personal state or persona / shadow, the stage of philosophic bands, the stage of ego, the stage of bio-social bands and the existential stage. In the Thirty Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness, it corresponds to the five sense consciousness and the sixth consciousness: mano-vijnana, and to wake-state consciousness and sleep-state consciousness in Advita Vedanta. The four thoughts also describe the unconscious state controlled solely by senses, which precedes the First Consciousness, - that is, as collective unconsciousness keeping information on life by Jung, as pre-personal state by Wilber, as the five sense consciousness in the Thirty Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness and the wake-state in Advita Vedenta. The Second Consciousness corresponds to Jung's personal unconsciousness and collective unconsciousness, to Wilber's trans-personal state, to the seventh of the eight types of consciousness, attachment consciousness: manas and storehouse consciousness: alaya vijnana in the Thirty Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness and to the sleep state in Advita Vedanta. Although the four thoughts have different courses and stages in development to the self-transcendent consciousness, they are identical in that the self-transcendent consciousness is inherent in the First Consciousness and the Second Consciousness and is non-dualistic consciousness. The self-transcendent consciousness, expressed as Self by Jung and Mind by Wilber, is the origin of all phenomena and the indivisible whole. In the Thirty Verses on the Manifestation of Consciousness, self and the universe are not in actual existence but assumed by transformation of consciousness. Thus, to perceive the universe of the perfect true nature by realizing the incorporeal self is the self-transcendent consciousness or the state of true suchness: tathata. This idea is very similar to the concept of Maya in Advita Vedanta, in which Sankara said such illusions as the wake state, the dream state and the sleep state veil Turya - the fourth consciousness - that is, the self-transcendent consciousness. The second objective of this study is to compare the methodology of access to the self-transcendent consciousness in the Oriental and Occidental psychologies. As to the motive of access to the self-transcendent consciousness, Jung's analytical psychology refers to Self-archetype having transcendent faculty which arose unity of consciousness and unconsciousness, and Wilber's trans-personal psychology refers to Emergent Unconsciousness as an energy pointing to non-duality. In the Thirty Verses on Manifestation of Consciousness, the motive is perceived as innate non-contaminated seed, which means the Buddha nature - inborn ability of awakening. In Advita Vedanta, the motive of access to the self-transcendent consciousness is considered being Brahman, but Brahman is transcendental deity not the incarnation of God and thus there is Iswara, the incarnated God acting as the motive and omnipotent and omniscient supreme spirit. As to the methods of access to access to the self-transcendent consciousness, Jung refers to self-realization through conversion of unconsciousness to consciousness, and Wilber to repetition of differentiation through de-identification and integration through identification toward upper stages from lower stages. The Thirty Verses represent the methods as absorption of the innate non-contaminated seed, that is, absorption of accumulated experiences into personality. In Advita Vedanta, the methods are to realize that Atman and Brahman are one and the same. This absolute realization burns the whole Karma. When Karma disappears, so does Maya. In Jung's analytical psychology, the route of access to self-transcendent consciousness is seen to be the process of self-realization, for which reinforcement of Self and formation of persona, as the tasks to be attained in the former stage of life, are needed and, as the tasks for the latter part of life, separation of persona and awareness of shadow are needed. Wilber divided the route into three states, that is, the pre-personal state in which Self is not differentiated, the personal state in which Self is formed and the trans-personal state in which Self is transcended. The pre-personal state is subdivided into Pleroma, Uroboros and Typhon realms, the personal state into Persona, Self and Centauric realms and the trans-personal state into Subtle, Causal and Ultimate realms. In the Thirty Verses, the route is described as Path of accumulation, Path of preparation, State of thorough understanding, State of cultivation and Path of no-more-learning. Advita Vedanta explains that the route is to realize one by one the wake state, the dream state and the sleep state, which are derived from Maya, and to free from illusions of the states, which is the very self-transcendent consciousness-Turya. The conclusion of this study is as follows: The four thoughts examined in this study have the following viewpoints in common toward the self-transcendent consciousness. First, the energy leading to the self-transcendent consciousness is immanent in Self. Second, they seek non-duality in the self-transcendent consciousness stage. Third, they seek restoration to nature. Fourth, they are influenced by self-transcendent consciousness in the consciousness state. In the meantime, the four thoughts examined in this study also show the following differences between the Oriental psychology and the Occidental psychology. First, for access to the self-transcendent consciousness, the former refers to removal of illusions through mental practices whereas the latter refers to repetition of the process of de-identification. Second, while the former considers access to the self-transcendent consciousness as being free from Self, the latter attaches great importance to the role of Self for the access. Third, the former evolves cyclically but the latter evolves linearly when it comes to evolution of human consciousness. Fourth, while the latter explains the process of evolution of consciousness focusing only on human consciousness and based only on duality -separation of the subject and the object, the former embraces evolution of the material universe, as well as human consciousness, to explain the process.