구르지예프, 베어 및 리소의 에니어그램 비교
(A) comparison of the Enneagram of Gurdjieff, Bear and Riso
구르지예프 베어 리소 에니어그램 교육심리학;
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The Enneagram, recently attracting public attention, has its origin in ancient Sufism and has been used for individual spiritual development and the transformation of consciousness. However, in Korea, most studies about the Enneagram focus on personality types, rather than the transformation of consciousness, which is an original purpose of the Enneagram. So, there have been many changes in the process of the development of the Enneagram, and modern Enneagram dealing with types, rather than various viewpoints has been introduced. Thus, this study is aimed at identifying the purpose and use of the Enneagram and examining some changes caused by using the Enneagram, through the study of Enneagram writings. Focused on this purpose, we compared the Enneagram from three viewpoints advocated by Gurdjieff, who initially introduced it and taught it as a tool of the transformation of consciousness, Bear who taught it by applying Silence and Self-Inquiry devised by the Indian Saint, Sri Ramana Maharshi, and Riso who taught it through the combination of Issacc's movement according to types of development level and Grof's Holotropic. Therefore, three specified purposes for this study include (a) identifying the present condition of research and the use of the Enneagram in our country, (b) comparing and analyzing the Enneagram from three viewpoints and (c) suggesting issues on counseling that can be helpful to modern people's healthy spiritual lives. To sum up, the results of this study are following. First, the result of the first purpose of this study shows that the lack of a synthetic lookout of the Enneagram can cause disproportion in the development of the Enneagram. It also appears that studies on the Enneagram are focused merely on grasping the type of personality for self-understanding as a basic process of steps of Self-realization, rather than synthetic understanding about the process of the growth. Second, in spite of various viewpoints, studies about the Enneagram tend to follow in the steps of contents used in the existing counseling. Third, the result shows that although it is a tool for spiritual development, the Enneagram almost never deals with spiritual development or the transformation of consciousness. The results of the theories of the Enneagram comparison and analysis according to the second purpose of this study are followings. First, all three viewpoints believe that a human being can develop beyond his or her personality due to underlying possibilities of growth. Second, it appears that the Enneagram is a good tool for the development of consciousness, that is, transformation of consciousness from low to high dimension, according to the fact that the Enneagram from three viewpoints classifies types about ordinary people and the development of consciousness. Third, the results show that Gurdjieff stands unchallenged in interpreting the symbolic meaning of the Enneagram, Bear applies Gurdjieff's interpretation of the symbol, and Riso never mentions it, yet these viewpoints apply Gurdjieff's symbol in teaching modern Enneagram focused on types. The results of comparing and analysing the work of the Enneagram are summarized as followed. The three viewpoints, that are objects of this study, have the same eventual purposes in the work of the Enneagram, in spite of different expressions, and all include three steps of the Work. Especially, Bear and Riso use similar pattern of process in the Enneagram, yet Gurdjieff adds a selfless service process to the last step. Thus, there are some differences among the main techniques of the three viewpoints in spite of the similarity of the purpose and procedures for the work. While Gurdjieff uses techniques such as Self-Remembering, Self-Observation, suppression of negative emotions, giving up efforts through personality, Movements, conscious work, the Fourth Way, stop method, meditation, observing respiration and so on, Bear uses Silence, Self-Inquiry, surrender, willingness, objective Self-Observation, method of questions and answers, meditation and so on as major techniques. Riso also uses some techniques such as the test for RHETI(Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator), self-knowledge, movements according to the levels of development, Holotropic, method of questions and answers and so on. The results of the practice of the work comparison among three viewpoints are following. It is suggested that human being experiencing the Enneagram from the three viewpoints can realize unconsciousness, mechanic and habitual automatic-pattern, self-identification pattern and self-personality type, observe himself or herself objectively, be open to the reality, and experience the transformation of attentiveness and consciousness. Therefore, the three viewpoints include realization and insight about subjective self-pattern in the first step and objective Self-exposure in the second step, yet all contain no mention of the completion of the process in the third step. In view of this, it is obvious that all three standpoints actually use the Enneagram as a tool for the transformation of consciousness. According to experiences from the practical process of eclectic Enneagram conducted by me, the results were as follows: (a) the Enneagram was used as a tool for transformation of consciousness, (b) each person realized subjective self-pattern and expressed himself of herself objectively, (c) moving body had effect on his or her spiritual growth, and (d) each person recognized that it is possible to keep up Self-observation in every day life. The Enneagram has significant implications in counseling. First, Enneagram counseling should basically include intellectual understanding about the transformation of consciousness toward the high dimension and multi-dimensional level beyond the personality and practical processes dealing with diverse dimension of consciousness. Second, general counseling should deal with the level of self-transcendence including spiritual health as well as physical health and realize that the human being has multi-dimensional consciousness. Thus, counseling should aim at transforming consciousness into the level of high dimension. Moreover, it is necessary to use integrated methods by applying new techniques never used in existing counseling such as Movements, the transformation of consciousness in daily life, suppression of negative emotions, disidentification, and so on. In conclusion, the results of this study are summarized as follows. First, the Enneagram aims at development beyond the purpose of classifying types. Second, we should put our lifelong purpose on higher dimensional development of consciousness than the present since we have unlimited potential for development. Third, we should understand knowledge about laws of the universe of 'the Law of Three' and 'the Law of Seven' involved in the symbol of the Enneagram and make efforts for transformation of consciousness into higher dimension, realizing that the human being has multi-dimensional consciousness. Fourth, it is obvious that various integrated methods are much better for the transformation of consciousness than only one method, and this process cannot only occur at an appointed place and time, but can also be used for the transformation of consciousness in our daily life.