학교장의 한국적 문화 지도성 요인분석
(A) factor analysis on the princpal's ladership based on the Korean culture
학교장 문화지도 교육지도 국가문화;
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This study was started from epistemological concerns that the indigenous theory of educational leadership based on the Korean culture is needed in the viewpoint of cultural relativism and epistemological subjectivism. A practical assumption that shared values in the leadership process would increase the leadership effectiveness was another factor that accelerated exploration of the principal's leadership based on the national culture. The contents of the study consisted of three parts: 1) Investigation of the norms on the principal's leadership that Korean teachers expect. 2) Analysis of the factors of the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture. 3) Analysis of the differences of principal's leadership based on the Korean culture according principal and sample variables in order to identify the possibility of generalization of the study results. The results of the study were summarized as follows. First, the norms on the principal's leadership that the Korean teachers expect reflected the characteristics of Korean culture. The related characteristics were ① the characteristics to emphasize patriarchal responsibilities and supports, and the care and concern about the subordinates from the culture that distance of power is long, ② the characteristics to emphasize the harmony with the collective and the human relationships from culture of collectivism, ③ the characteristics to value the warm expression, the consideration on the subordinates, the inter-coordinations and bond, the admiration and encouragement, the broad-mindness, and the respect of individual personality from female-oriented culture, ④ the characteristics to emphasize the certainness and correctness of the structures and affairs, the appropriate rewards on the efforts, and the correct views from the culture to avoid the uncertainness, ⑤ the characteristics to emphasize the wholistic personality, investigating the virtues such as moral attitudes, the consistency, positive drive, and a long view of life from the culture of the confucian dynamics, and ⑥ the others include the democratic management, conversing the diverse opinions, keeping their on the educational philosophies, shaping the participant mood, and ensuring the teacher's autonomy. Second, the pilot study and the full-scale study were implemented, using a questionnaire consisted of items derived from Korean teachers' free descriptive responses to the principal's leadership. In the final analysis, 4 types of principal's leadership factors including 37items were determinated, which were named supportive consideration, warm-heartedness, moral discipline and sincerity. Reliability coefficients of each factor were .9113 ~ .9490, which could be regarded as considerably high. Third, correlation coefficients among the 4 factors of the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture were calculated. The coefficients of among factors were .756 ~ .880, which implied positive significant relationships among factors. Fourth, the differences of the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture according to variables of principals and respondents in order to identify the commonsense and the possibility of the generalization of the study results were analyzed. The results were that; ① the principals' leadership based on the Korean culture according to the school variables was not significantly different; ② differences of the principal's leadership according the principals' sex and career were not found, but school years was a significant variable; ③ the differences of the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture according respondents variables were significant. Male teachers perceived principal's leadership higher than females did, while teachers with longer teaching career perceived principal's leadership higher than teachers with shorter career did; and ④ the principals' leadership based on the Korean culture included values embeded in Korean culture regardless of specific school conditions. This finding supported the possibility of the generalization of the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture within the cultural context. Fifth, the results of this study were discussed as follows. The fact that the norms on the principal's leadership expected by Korean teacher reflected the characteristics of the Korean culture and confucian culture implied that individual's cognitive system may be not free from the larger cultural context. It was proved that Korean's cognitive system might be different from Western cognitive system. That is, the Western cognitive system was regarded as material and analytical, whereas the principal's leadership based on the Korean culture reflected value-oriented and wholistic cognitive system. This implicated that there would be possibility of misunderstanding on the culture-specified phenomenon if the Western cognitive system would be applied in the Korean educational administration. All the norms on the principal's leadership expected by Korean teacher did not entirely reflected the characteristics of the Korean culture. Korean teachers hated authoritarianism and woori-ism that is the rooted characteristics of the Korean culture. This finding suggested that the Korean teachers' cognitive systems is in the process of change and that the investigation on the subjective view of persons concerned is needed. In conclusion, I suggested the indigenous theories do not exist in the book, but in the mind of the persons concerned.