영재 유아교육의 실태와 유치원 교사의 인식 연구
(The) Realities of the Special Education for the Gifted Infant and Kindergarten Teacher's Understanding of it
영재교육 유아교육 유치원 교사 영재유아;
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The purpose of this study was to discuss the necessity of preschool gifted education and how it could be conducted more efficiently in an effort to enhance preschool gifted education. The instrument used in this study was questionnaires prepared by this researcher by reconstructing what had been used by earlier studies to suit the purpose of the study. A pilot survey was implemented to test its reliability, and its validity was verified under the guidance of an expert gifted educator and the main processor. The subjects in this study were the kindergarten teachers from large urban areas, small urban regions and rural communities in Busan, Ulsan and south Gyeongsang province. After a survey was conducted, the responses from 300 teachers were collected and analyzed with SPSS Ver 10.0 program. And X^(2) test was fulfilled at the p=.05 level of significance. The findings of this study were as follows: First, 61.0 percent of the teachers investigated felt the need for gifted education, whereas 35.7 percent, which were much smaller in number, didn't agree to that. The most common reason gifted education was necessary was to develop young children's talents as early as possible, and the second most common reason was to increase the excellence of education. The third most prevailing reason was to maximize learning efficiency. As for reason why the other group didn't agree to its necessity, they cited possible dysfunction of overheated education, lack of harmony between gifted and non-gifted children, and gifted children's needs for separate special education. Second, 84.3 percent out of 300 respondents didn't provide gifted education. Just 38 teachers conducted gifted education, and nine teachers were making a preparation for that. Among the teachers who offered gifted education, the most prevailing criterion to select gifted children was academic achievement, followed by parents' hope, intelligence quotient and recommendation by homeroom teachers. The most common way to offer gifted education was utilizing integrated class, and that education was conducted by homeroom teachers once or twice a week in most cases. 73.7 percent, the largest group, utilized textbooks and teaching materials developed by gifted education experts. When asked whether gifted education was offered in a way to cater to child developmental stage and characteristics, they had just an average opinion about that. Third, the larger group of the teachers hoped to conduct gifted education, as 59.0 percent wanted to take charge of gifted education if they had a chance, and 36.3 percent didn't. As to the most common reason, the former group expected it to contribute to developing child potentials, and the second most prevailing reason was that they were interested in that. The latter group cited their own poor expertise the most, and the second most common reason was that it's against the principle of educational equality. And the third most common reason was heavy work load. 89.5 percent considered it necessary to take training courses in gifted education. The most preferred course was the definition and characteristics of gifted child, followed by screening and education programs. The most useful training course was workshop about gifted child guidance, followed by teaching practice, which were all related to educational practice. The most widely required teacher qualification was an understanding of gifted children's psychology and needs, followed by expertise on gifted education. Fourth, regarding the problems with screening, they found it most unadvisable to select gifted children based on intelligence or academic achievement, and the second biggest problem was a lack of fixed screening criteria. As for the problems with teacher, poor expertise was most widely pointed out, and the second biggest problem was that teachers didn't pay due attention to well-rounded education. The biggest problem with textbooks and materials was that it's difficult to develop individualized textbooks, and the second biggest problem was a shortage of textbooks and teaching materials. The greatest problem with its management was a lack of national criteria and support. The screening method was viewed as the second biggest problem with its management, and the third was insufficient professional teachers. Fifth, the most widely recommended way to improve gifted education was founding separate kindergartens for gifted children. The best way to select gifted children was providing systematic training for in-service teachers to be qualified, and the second most ideal way was having graduate school of education set up a gifted education department. What's most needed to dynamize gifted education was administrative and financial backup, followed by gifted education programs. Concerning future perspective for gifted education, the largest group of the teachers felt that gifted education should move in a new direction, and the second biggest group believed that it would be widespread because student's individuality and diversity should be prized. Based on the above-mentioned findings, there are some suggestions: First, preschool gifted education is necessary to develop young children's talents as early as possible, give them a chance to receive appropriate education, and increase their learning efficiency. Second, preschool gifted education was just in an introductory stage, as 1.7 percent of the teachers investigated conducted it. Third, gifted-education teachers should understand gifted children's mind and needs and be academically qualified. They should get training to learn about the definition and characteristics of gifted children, screening methods and gifted education curriculum, and take part in workshop to acquire practical teaching skills. Fourth, regarding the problems with preschool gifted education, gifted children were selected mainly according to intelligence or academic achievement, and it's not an easy task to prepare individualized teaching materials suitable for their traits. And above all, teachers weren't qualified enough, and the support from the nation wasn't sufficient, either. Fifth, in order to iron out the problems with gifted education, separate kindergartens for gifted children should be established, and there should be more administrative and financial support from the government. And how gifted education should be conducted should discreetly be studied.