다중지능 이론의 교육적 시사점과 한계 : 전통적 지능 이론과의 비교를 중심으로
On the Educational Implications and Practical Limits of Multiple Intelligences Theory
다중지능 이론 전통적 지능 이론 교육 학습자;
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The purpose of this study is to explore the educational implications and practical limits of multiple intelligences theory(MIT) theoretically. Several intelligence theories which have been dominant in psychology and education so far can be characterized as singular intelligence theories(SIT). Binet, Spearman and Thurstone may be representative of singular intelligence theorists, even if they have a few considerable disagreements in some important aspects of intelligence. Whereas, Gardner, multiple intelligences theorists. Then what are the differences between SIT and MIT? The differences between SIT and MIT can be categorized into as follows: (1) the perspective on intelligence: the intelligence is one single ability in SIT, whereas the intelligence are some discrete abilities in MIT which are both different and non-relational one another. (2) the factor of intelligence: the main factor of SIT can be defined as the cognitive, learning ability which consists of memory, attention, comprehension, discrimination, inferring etc. The various factors of MIT may be divided into as follows: linguistic, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist, etc. (3) the malleability of intelligence: the intelligence is characterized as fixed and unchangeable by nature, and can be measured by a certain kind of IQ tests in view of SIT. But the intelligence, as unfixed and extendible and measured only by various kinds of quality tests such as observation, portfolio, discussion etc. The educational implications of MIT can be summarized as the acceptance of diversity and dynamics in class. In a viewpoint of MIT, schoolteachers should keep in mind that their pupils are different in various kinds of cognition, emotion, morality and bodily movement etc. Therefore these diversities of their children are available to their education in setting up the educational aims, selecting the curriculum, and evaluating their results. However, these items consisting of the educational process cannot be recognized as fixed and unchangeable. These can be changeable according to the interests of their pupils and the climate of the classroom. These diversity and flexibility may be both the strong and weak points of MIT in applying to the educational process. It is well known that it is hard to apply MIT to the practices of schooling in Korea. Because the uniqueness of Korean culture can be characterized as one kind of uniform hierarchy and most pupils have to do compete with one another and study desperately to succeed in life. Paradoxically speaking, this aspect of Korean culture may be the important reason of identifying the educational implications of MIT and urging the educational applications of MIT.