장애아동 조기 교육기관의 교육과정 분석
(The) Analysis of Curriculum on the Early Education System for Handicapped Children
장애아동 조기 교육기관 교육과정 특수교육;
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The present study attempts to investigate the curriculums of early education institutions for disabled children and analyze the related problems for the purpose of improving the quality of education for the disabled. The practical research questions are as follows: First, what are the characteristics of the curriculums in the early education institutions for disabled children? Is there any difference in these characteristics according to the type of institution? Second, what are the characteristics of the educational methods in the early education institutions for disabled children? Is there any difference in these characteristics according to the type of institution? Third, what are the characteristics of the educational environments in the early education institutions for disabled children? Is there any difference in these characteristics according to the type of institution? To deal with these questions, a survey was conducted to 51 early education institutions in Daegu, Gyeongnam (11 special school kindergartens, 9 welfare centers or organizations for the disabled, 23 private speech therapy centers for the disabled, and 8 special classes in regular schools). As a result, the following conclusion was drawn. First, in terms of the curriculum, many early education institutions have different ideas on the importance of educational objectives. But, most of them lay a weighted emphasis on the independent physical functions, and then the next important factor is the development of sociality. Language development or sensory/perceptual training are not recognized as the most important. As for the method of establishing the education plans, the most frequent response was the modification and complementation of the regular kindergarten programs according to the interest or ability of the children. The next frequent method is the systematic planning based on the distinct educational philosophical objectives of the institution. Then the third answer is the application of existing educational program for disabled children. The tendency of responses is not significantly different according to the type of early education institutions. The most important participant in the educational planning is a homeroom teacher, followed by the speech therapist and the teachers other than the homeroom teacher. The curriculums they use are the ones modified and complemented from the curriculums used in the regular schools or special school kindergarten courses. The next frequent curriculum is the one developed within the institution, followed by the general kindergarten courses and the special school kindergarten curriculums sold commercially. The curricular programs performed in those institutions are the physical exercise, language learning, cognitive learning, perceptual functions development, sensory functions development, and livelihood training programs (in the order of importance). Each institution tend to use a little different materials when making educational plans. In general, however, the most frequently used materials are the curriculums for the general kindergartens, and then the next ones are magazines, special school kindergarten curriculums, learning project materials, and teachers' manuals. The most prevalent type of therapeutic education is speech therapy, therapeutic play, motor and perceptual training, art therapy, daily life training, and sensory integration. The usage of music therapy, occupational therapy, psychological therapy or physical therapy was low. One of the most serious difficulties in the operation of the curriculums is the low awareness and considerations of the neighbors for disabled children, lack of educational materials, and insufficient knowledge and skills. Second, the educational methods used in the early education institutions are as follows: the tests used in the evaluation at the entrance are the sociality development, intelligence, behavior, and learning readiness tests. Most of the institutions carry out the test once in six months or once a year. Major teaching/learning patterns are tutoring or small-group teaching. The teacher-student ratio is 1:1 in most cases. The biggest size of the class is 5 students for 1 teacher, and the teacher spend 30 minutes to one hour at the longest on the individual tutoring. The educational activities are arts & crafts, eurhythmics, music, free play, talking, and field trips (in the order of importance). The educational materials and tools are bought from the special education materials suppliers or other general suppliers rather than using tailor-made goods or the materials made in the institution. Part-time classes are most common, and the next prevalent patterns are morning classes, whole-day classes, and afternoon classes. Third, as for the educational environments, special school kindergartens, welfare centers or organizations for the disabled, and the special classes of general schools seem to have generally good maintenance of ventilation, illumination, and air-conditioning. These environments are generally good in the private speech therapy centers, too. In terms of the accessibility of the facilities with public transportations, welfare centers or organizations for the disabled and the private speech therapy centers are more accessible than the special school kindergartens or special classes in general education schools. The procurement of convenience facilities is higher in the special school kindergartens and welfare centers, but the facilities conditions are very low in the private speech therapy centers.