否定의 領域에 關한 硏究
(A) Study of the Scope of Negation
부정 영역 부정어 양화소 부정소;
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This thesis tries to show that the scope of negation, primarily a semantic phenomenon, is closely related to other aspects of the grammar. Examining various types of constructions related to negation, I specifically show that the scope of negation should be dealt with by some multi-dimensional approaches, requiring both phonological and considerations, along with semantic analyses. The thesis is organized as follows. I start by considering syntactic and semantic aspects of the scope of negation. In Chapter 2, I sketch basic properties of negation, explaining the concepts of scope and focus. First, I show how a negative element comes to have the scope over other elements in the sentence. The general conclusion of the discussion is that the scope of negation is largely dependent on syntactic structures; normally, the negative scope stretches from the position of the negative element to its right. Second, I discuss the notion of focus. The important point in discussing focus is that the syntactic pattern that is responsible for determining the scope of negation does not always hold for some phonological reasons. If a contrastive nuclear stress falls on a particular part of a negative sentence, the negative force is concentrated on that part, leaving the rest of the sentence in a positive sense and ultimately leading to discontinuous negation. The major point of the discussion in this chapter is that the meaning of a negative sentence may vary with the scope and the focus of negation. In Chapter 3, I go on to discuss the relation between the notion of scope and the grammatical structures. By analyzing various types of constructions, I show that the scope is a very complex phenomenon in which all sorts of linguistic information interact with each other. I start by discussing the relationship between negative elements and the modal auxiliary verbs. Based on the examination of various types of modal auxiliaries in negative sentences, I show that the syntactic factors play an important role in determining the scope of negation. Then I go on to discuss the role of adverbials in negative sentences, showing that phonological factors as well as syntactic ones are crucial. In the discussion of the connection between quantifiers and negatives, I reach a similar conclusion, showing that the phonological factors sometimes overrides the syntactic ones in determining the scope of negation in a sentence. In conclusion, I show in this thesis that the scope of negation is a rather complex phenomenon in which various factors are at play, affecting one another. As I find that some approaches based simply on a line of grammatical analysis would not be successful. Therefore, I propose that an effective approach to the scope of negation may be the interdisciplinary one in which phonological, syntactic, semantic, and even pragmatic analyses are considered.