감독제도의 역사적 발전에 관한 연구 : 웨슬리와 한국 감리교회를 중심으로
Historical Development of Episcopacy : Focused on Wesley and Korean Methodists
감독제도 역사적발전 웨슬리 한국감리교회;
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The dissertation explores the historical development of episcopacy that has played an important role in the history of Christianity. The study, particularly, focuses upon the idea of John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, and investigates the establishment of the office of bishop in the North America and in Korea. The roles and functions of episcopacy in Korean Methodism is to be scrutinized in the study. The study aims to reflect the fundamental origin of episcopacy in the several perspectives: biblical, historical, and theological. With that goal, the study will contribute to Korean Methodism that had adapted Episcopal rule. Since the beginning of the Christian church, the episcopacy was the essential factor that maintained the purity in doctrine and apostolicity. It was the role of bishop that ought to pass the essential traditions onto later generations of the church. Bishops were chosen among leaders with virtue and faithfulness. Once chosen, the church members should obey their orders. In the early church and up to the early middle ages, the bishoprics in the major cities such as Jerusalem, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome were prominent. In the medieval church, the episcopacy developed under the leadership of bishop of Rome later called the Pope. Pope Leo the Great and Gregory the Great were the major figures who established the papacy in strong authority. Though the bishops were ruled by secular kings and lords throughout the Middle Ages, it was Gregory VII who strengthened the papacy as well as episcopacy again. However, bishops became the major objects of reform in the Reformation. Luther□ s idea of the Priesthood of All Believers was the basic principle of Protestantism on church politics. From then on, Protestant churches insisted church without bishops or church with less-powered bishops. Anglican church based upon the traditional episcopacy as well as the Protestant theological view upon it. Because Wesley□ s Methodism started from the Anglican Church, it also adapted episcopacy as well as Protestant idea about church offices. Thus, Wesley stressed the role of bishop not as ruler but as pastoral leader or supporter. American Church succeeded in Wesley□ s view, and the episcopacy was became very helpful church office in the growth of American Methodism. Korean Methodism also inherited the legacy of American Methodism. Thus the church also borrowed the church politics. Around 1930, Korean Methodists adapted the office of Superintendent, later calling it bishop. Before 1970s only one bishop was elected and too much power was given to him. To correct the dominancy of bishop□ s office, the Korean Methodism changed to elect several bishops covering several conferences. Based upon this poly-bishop system, the Methodism spread effectively in Korea. Negatively in one hand, because bishops served both their local churches and conferences, the role of itinerant care disappeared. In 2004, the church changed its charter once again to elect it inerant fulltime bishop that represents the church and several co-bishops that serves their local church and local conferences. The dissertation investigates the three historical examples of bishops such as Yang Joo Sam, Jung Chun Soo, and Yoo Hyung Ki in the later chapters. Still, it is a grave duty to elect right bishops with virtue and piety.