우리나라 特送業의 글로벌 e-로지스틱스 戰略
Global e-logistics stratics for korean express service
항공운송 e-로지스틱스 특송업;
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With the recent increase of international trade and interchanges, the interest in international logistics - including commercial documents and small-size or mid-size freight - skyrockets. Among the international logistics, the most speedy and highly valued is express service(door-to-door service) specialized in various items and small quantity production system and frequent small quantity delivery. The accelerated cycles of international trade in Korea has boosted the demand in express transportation, which results in more demand and interest in express service. The current express service market in Korea, which is taken up more than 72% by 4 major foreign logistics companies such as DHL, FedEx, UPS and TNT, leaves little room for Korean companies purely run by Korean capital, and with the given situation, the Korean logistics companies face a variety of limits in many ways even though they struggle hard for their own niche markets. Some of the factors that complicates the already highly competitive express service market for Korean logistics companies include declining portage due to severe competition, shortened lead time and high expectations from costumers. The influx of foreign logistics companies provided with in-house freight airplanes and vehicles - not to mention the overwhelming brand power they have built worldwide - now threatens the very survival of Korean companies. The previous strategic moves Korean logistics employed to live through the dire competition have mainly been cost cuts - until recently. Currently, logistics firms are applying many different management strategies to survive the fiendish competition, and so are the domestic, especially when it is a necessity to be adapted to globalized standards. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine, in more intensified competition not only among Korean logistics firms but with inflowing foreign counterparts as well, the reasons why Korean logistics companies have to be globalized and the possible complications the domestic logistics firms might have to overcome under particular circumstances where the Korean companies are yet to be systematized to the global standards. The main hindrances the Korean logistics companies now face from leaping into world-class companies can be summarized as following: network, customer service, and logistics infrastructures: To begin with, Korean logistics companies are paltry in size, and, being in the first step into the global competition, they are experiencing many difficulties establishing a global logistics network. Most of them lack a long history, know-how, globalized management style, and capital, which all add up to a huge obstacle to worldwide competition - despite excellent logistics information system. Poor customer service is another weakness; Korean logistics firms yet fail to provide various and customized logistics service in accordance with the need of corporate customers, or distinctively competitive service for lead time. The customer service now available from Korean logistics companies does not live up to the expectations and is way behind what the world-class logistics companies can provide: SCM, consulting, overall improvement to logistics networks, and etc. Lastly, Korean logistics companies have a problem establishing logistics infra such as logistics information infra and logistics professional human resource infra. Although they increasingly show interests in computerization and automatization, and actually increase the rate of investment in such areas, the huge amount of initial cost and building time still remains a big restraint. Moreover, the shortage of logistics professionals for organizing and developing logistics as well as transporting and storing. In an attempt to provide measures to overcome these complications, this study suggests three alternatives: global network establishment strategy, global customer service improvement strategy, and global logistics infra establishment strategy: First, as for the global network establishment strategy, Korean logistics companies should establish a joined transportation system through a strategic affiliation with other domestic transportation firms so as to construct an allotment system in transportation. This would not only maximize the effectiveness of transportation but also enable them to provide high quality customer service. In case of handling commercial documents or corporate freight in foreign markets, it is important to constitute a partnership with local companies that issue orders. There will be many difficulties initializing a partnership with local companies, but once such a partnership is successfully established and continuously maintained, the local companies would be able to get high quality service as well as discounted portage, and the transportation companies would possibly establish a new network and ensure a new market, thus maximizing mutual benefits. The next step would involve establishing a global logistics network through a strategic affiliation with the leading logistics company in the region. Korean logistics firms are now seeking strategic affiliations with global transportation companies in Japan and China. Once securing the regional logistics network and employing joined marketing strategies with affiliated local companies, Korean logistics firms not just have a chance to acquire advanced logistics techniques such as logistics engineering and SCM consulting - not to mention utilizing the global logistics network that the affiliations possess. The second strategy is providing distinctive customer service along with aggressive investment and technology innovation. Just as other industries, logistics can only gain competitiveness only through providing distinctive customer service. It is inevitable for Korean logistics to continually develop high value service specially customized for specific regional demands in order to compete worldwide. Distinctive customer service possibly means independent business models, for example, shortened lead time optimized for customers' taste and various environments, premium customer service, or customized logistics service. Korean logistics companies should develop various service, differentiate their service from other competitors in terms of region and item, and seize niche markets with such service. Such an effort should be followed by huge aggressive investment in facilities and equipment. Service network, storage and assortment facilities are required to secure swift, stable and convenient delivery. As a result, logistics companies should increase investment in a logistics information system such as a freight tracking system so as to improve customer service. The third strategy is for both government and companies to reinforce the establishment of logistics information infra and human resource infra. Epochal improvements in logistics and groundbreaking amelioration of public transportation can only be achieved through a joint effort of companies developing and improving various service, and government willing to support the companies with appropriate policies and laws. Logistics companies themselves should establish a logistics information system for a smooth exchange of information with corporate customers. Acknowledging the importance of professional human resource as in other high-value, information-critical industries, Korean logistics has to train world-class logistics professionals by sending more people to countries advanced in logistics for further and better education. These efforts to overcome difficulties and complement weaknesses will surely be a stepping stone to the survival of Korean logistics companies in the global logistics market by sharpening the competitiveness through the development of the core competency in logistics.