英語 集中學習課程의 效果分析 : 海外硏修와 國內硏修 比較
(A) study on the effectiveness of English intensive programs
영어교육 어학연수 집중학습과정;
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Many people all over the world are struggling to learn English as it becomes more and more important in this age of globalization. Korean students also have earnest desires to develop their English ability. As a result, a lot of Korean EFL learners participate in various intensive programs to improve their ability, whether abroad or in Korea. How effective they should be one of the issues treated in the field of ESL/EFL. However, few studies to date have investigated the question of the effectiveness of these intensive programs. This is the rationale for the present study. The present study set out to investigate how much two types of intensive programs, one in Korea and the other in Canada, influenced Korean EFL learners' achievement in English ability and their learning styles. The data gathered for this investigation came from three groups of participants: U-group, K-group, and C-group. The U-group students, from the University of Ulsan, participated in an intensive program at _?_ University in Canada. The K-group students, from Kyungpook National University, participated in an intensive program at their university. The C-group students, attending the University of Ulsan, did not participate in any intensive programs. The number of participants was 89 in the U-group (40 in 2002 and 49 in 2003), 69 in the K-group (33 in 2002 and 36 in 2003), and 53 in the C-group (26 in 2002 and 27 in 2003). The first research question considered the differences in achievement scores between the above-mentioned groups. For the achievement scores, the participants had to take a speaking test and the TOEIC twice, respectively, before and after the intensive programs. The score differences between the pre-test and post-test were considered as the degree of each student's achievement. The TOEIC is composed of two separate sections: reading and listening. These two English skills were considered separately in analyzing data, in addition to the total score. One of the concerns regarding the first research question was whether or not there was any difference in achievement scores among the three groups. In general, the results of the analyses of variance provided the evidence that the score differences between the two experimental groups (U-group and K-group) and the control group (C-group) were statistically significant. The results indicated that participating in an intensive program is effective for improving English ability. In addition, the results also showed statistically-higher achievement scores for the U-group students than for the K-group students, with respect to their TOEIC scores in 2002. As far as listening, reading, and speaking are concerned, the participants showed higher achievement scores in the order of U-K-C, in general, and some (not all) differences were statistically significant. The data were further analyzed after classifying the participants into advanced, intermediate, and beginner students. For advanced students, the achievement score differences between the U-group and K-group were not statistically significant. Results do not provide the evidence that, for advanced students, going to an English-speaking country is more effective than participating in an intensive program in Korea. For intermediate and beginner students, the results showed statistically-higher achievement scores for the U-group students than for the K-group students, with respect to listening, speaking, and their TOEIC scores in 2002. Therefore, it may be concluded that going to an English-speaking country is more effective for beginner and intermediate students than for advanced students. The data were further analyzed with respect to the proficiency levels within each group. In the case of the U-group, participants showed higher achievement scores in the order of beginner-intermediate-advanced students, in general. However, the order in the K-group was different as follows: beginner-advanced-intermediate in reading (in 2002); advanced-intermediate-beginner in speaking (in 2002); intermediate-beginner-advanced in speaking (in 2003). Results seem to indicate that beginner students did not show much effectiveness in Korea, compared with their effectiveness in Canada. The second research question considered whether or not intensive programs affect the participants' learning styles. As in the achievement scores, a questionnaire with a total of 10 items was given twice, before and after the programs. The results showed that the U-group students (U1: 10 items; U2: 1 items) and K-group students (K1: 10 items; K2: 2 items) changed their learning styles more positively with statistical significance than the C-group students (C1; 2 items; C2: 0 items). In particular, some changes in learning styles in 2002 (8 out of the 10 items) were significantly different among the three groups. These results indicate a more positive change in items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9, for the K-group students than for the U-group students, and in items 8 and 10 for the U-group students than K-group students. However, these differences were not statistically significant. However It was the differences with respect to a change of learning styles between the C-group students and the other group students that showed statistical significance. The third research question considered what kind of factors in learners and their learning environments affected their English proficiency achievement by sorting the subjects into two groups on the basis of their achievement degrees: One was the highest achievement group (H) and the other was the lowest achievement group (L). Data drawn from a questionnaire (Q1∼Q25), interview and their journals showed that the H-group, especially in speaking proficiency achievement had more successful learners' factors than the L-group. Furthermore, the results showed that during the course, the H-group placed more emphases on spoken English (Listening & Speaking) compared with the L-group, and vice versa. Accordingly we may infer that the improvement of spoken English proficiency contributes more to the enhancement of the other two skills. Finally, I'd like to suggest that when designing extra-curricular and field activities for English intensive courses abroad or on- campus, administrators consider their pedagogical effectivenesses more carefully.