한국 자동차클러스터의 기업간 신뢰와 결정요인에 관한 연구
(A) study on determinants of inter-firm trust on Korea automotive clusters
자동차클러스터 기업 신뢰;
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This paper's main purpose is to find out the determinants and the mechanism of trust in supplier relations in Korea automotive clusters. Since mid 1980, research on trust was gradually getting attention that is focused on inter-organizations, especially the inter-firm trust. As its function and role were emphasized, it become expanded over not merely dyadic relation but the relation that ranges from social network to social trust. Trust lowers the transaction cost in inter-firm business relation through a decrease of transaction cost(Arrow, 1974; Carsson, 2000). Also, it reduces transaction cost by overcoming the environment of danger and uncertainty and it can improve the motive of investment among transactions of enterprises and transaction-specific. In particular, its value will be maximized when trust takes on reciprocity which is founded on the function of network. (Barney and Hanse, 1994; Carsson, 2000) Thus, it has a lot of advantages in a wide level that includes the social and systemic relation in the economic association of exchange and its definition reflects these characteristics. When these characteristics are considered, trust can be said ultimately that it is rational prediction which respects each others' profit and maintains the relation of reciprocity through reputation or past continuous interaction with a parter in the association of exchange. This report perceived the attention and importance of trust and examined it among enterprises, especially the formative mechanism of trust among enterprises of Korea automobile cluster by using Sako and Helper (1998)'s analysis model. That is, by probing inter-firm trust of automobile industry which its center is on the national automotive cluster, it will scrutinize the factors of determination of trust that occurs among enterprises in an interaction and investigates the mechanism of formative trust. In case of cluster, it was studied widely on the systemic relation and also the elements of construction for collective learning and innovation. The competitive advantage of cluster cultivates the improvement of productivity and the innovative capability, and there have been a lot of effort to find a foundation of competitive advantage. These discussions put its focus on the importance of trust for the embeddeness and efficiency of network and they also emphasize the role of trust that takes place in an interaction and cooperation between firms in exchange activity. The interaction and learning activity of innovative network which are formed here will have competitive advantage that creates innovation and a stream of knowledge of cluster. Eventually, trust formed in these relationships is becoming a significant feature because it comes out as learning and social trust for innovative environment of cluster. Though the importance of trust's research in cluster is getting increased as noted above, there are still plenty of limitations to design a framework of analysis that can contemplate the complex structure of transaction which occurs here and the trust's research in innovative network, including the mutual activity amongst economic organizations. Therefore this paper recognizes these limitations and concentrate on the discussion of the process of trust's formation and becomes a preceding research that can systematically speculate the relation of trust amid enterprises in cluster hereafter through this study. The result of research can be divided broadly as follows. First, the determinants of trust(goodwill trust) can be technological assistance, uncertainty, suggestions of ideas or technique for a client enterprise and the protection against competitive enterprise from suppliers, and the support of the cost expansion and etc. So to speak, the level of trust gets higher when there are more technological assistance for the client enterprise, lower uncertainty about the problems related with techniques or production, reflect a great deal of activity of suggestion from suppliers, and consider suppliers' expense in question. Second, opportunism is a mathematical function that is the prediction of long-term commitment, the size of organization, uncertainty, and the protection for the client enterprise against competitive enterprise from the supplying organization. Third, the main factors between trust and opportunism are not equal. In the example of technological assistance, the characteristics of the client enterprise's proper, and the suggestion on a client enterprise, they affect on the improvement of trust but they have no relation with opportunism. This paper has put the focus on trust for the client from suppliers, the reason to look into the main factors of trust with the elements that is connected with opportunism is that opportunism gets eliminated according to the main factors, on the contrary some factors does form trust but they do not contribute to relieve opportunism. The distinction of the main factors between trust and opportunism is discussed in 'Sako and Helper (1998)' and the results agrees with this paper. Fourth, the level trust in Ul-san comes out lower than the area of In-cheon, and there also seems to be a difference in the formative mechanism of trust. In this analysis, the enterprises in Ul-san and In-cheon are set up as dummy variables. And the results are that in the area of Ul-san, the level of distrust to the client was high, in case of In-cheon, the level of trust came out high. This result can be connected with the knowledge flow of cluster. As trust was mentioned in chapter 2, the knowledge flow makes interaction more flexible. Through this additional survey, such relation is acknowledged with the comparison of knowledge flow among clusters indirectly. The outcome of this survey on knowledge flow, In-cheon's realization of a large company's importance and learning activity of knowledge came out high than the area of Ul-san. Also to some extent, the cluster of In-cheon has more open and structural features in comparison with Ul-san. On the other hand, these solutions premise that there may be another outcomes when there is the least regional variation through systemic plan and enterprise survey that is evenly dispersed on the subject. Trust that is built through with interaction and social relation brings social capital gain and by making knowledge flow and interactive learning flexible that are needed for such innovation, it brings the formation of innovative cluster sooner or later. These points also shows the importance and systemic research on the relation of trust and innovation of innovative cluster as well. And it is a part that needs to be talked over henceforth. Although this piece of writing handles the case of automotive cluster, it didn't reflect the feature of cluster which should systematically analyzed such as horizontal and various relation of enterprise because it was accomplished by the center of vertical inter-firm. Since it merely provides the difference of regional and spatial of cluster, it can be a limitation of this writing. In the meantime, the researches on innovative cluster was simply concentrating on the systemic and physical infra-policy in importance of input. This writing has its significance on approaching the aspect of the cluster's feature qualitatively by retracing only knowledge flow in a single line and the transactional connection of productivity. Also it can be said that it is a precedential task to examine the nature of dynamic of knowledge flow for innovation. Furthermore, the analysis of inter-firm trust can be crucial cornerstone of social capital gain through social learning and trust.