평가피드백과 주의방향이 완벽성향집단의 상태불안에 미치는 영향
(The) effect of evaluative feedback and direction of attention on state anxiety of perfectionists
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Distorted thoughts of perfectionists are the crucial causes in psychological maladjustment. Evaluative feedback and direction of attention are the factors to affect perfectionists' distorted thoughts. The aim of this research was to investigate whether state anxiety of perfectionists' can be changed via evaluative feedback and direction of attention. In this study, fifty-two perfectionists were selected from about five-hundred undergraduate students with MPS(Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale). First, subjects were divided into four different groups. At first, all subjects were asked to perform the first test. In positive feedback condition, subjects were given their scores that they had performed better than 93% of a sample of university students. In negative feedback condition, subjects were given their scores that they had performed better than 21% of a sample of university students. In self-focused attention condition, subjects were asked to complete self-focus sentence completion task in front of a mirror. In external-focused attention condition, subjects were asked to complete external-focus sentence completion task without a mirror. And then subjects were asked to perform the second test and to complete STAI(State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The dependent variable was difference between pretreatment state anxiety and posttreatment state anxiety. When negative feedback and self-focused attention were presented at the same time, state anxiety was increased. In negative feedback condition, external-focused attention decreased state anxiety. In self-focused attention condition, positive feedback decreased state anxiety. Therefore, these findings suggest that presenting negative feedback and self-focused attention at the same time increases psychological maladjustment. Both negative feedback and self-focused attention are maladaptive factors. But in this research it is found that presenting these factors with positive feedback or external-focused attention can be effective to decrease state anxiety. In conclusion, the results posit that evaluative feedback and direction of attention are the factors that can activate perfectionists' distorted thoughts and show the need to formulate a method to deal with perfectionism using two factors.