칸트의 미 개념에 대한 반성적 고찰
(The) reflective study on the concept of the beautiful in Kant's aesthetic theory
미 개념 독일철학 칸트;
- 원문 URL
This study is aiming at clarifying the notion of the beautiful and its problems in Kant's aesthetics. Kant defines his philosophy as transcendental or critical philosophy. 'Critique' means to determine the nature and limit of all 'faculties' or 'powers' which is given to human mind. These faculties which are a priori principle conditions of all experiences 'legislate' for certain types which make experience possible. This means that they supply the principles according to which that experience is structured and thus possible at all. Does judgement supply such a principle? Kant investigates this problem by way of two particularly interesting types of judgement : aesthetic judgement and teleological judgement. One of important reasons for investigating judgement is that it may play a mediating role between the theoretical philosophy of nature and the practical philosophy of moral action. The study on judgement thus makes the unification of these two philosophies possible. An aesthetic judgement(or judgement of taste) means the judgement which connects a feeling of pleasure to the mere experience of something, and accordingly calls it 'beautiful' or 'sublime'. But not all pleasures connected to my experience of something are aesthetic pleasures. Pleasures that follow from subjective interests, intellectual or ethical interests, and objective considerations of the object cannot be aesthetic pleasures. From this context comes the concept of 'disinterestedness', the first moment of Kant's aesthetic judgements. But the second moment is the fact that aesthetic judgements have universality. They involve an expectation or claim on the agreement of others without a concept. This universality is distinguished from such a mere subjective evaluation as 'I like honey', and also from such a strict descriptive-objective judgement as 'Honey contains sugar and is sweet'. The taste judgement has the subjective universal communicability. It can be nothing other than the state of mind in the free play of the imagination and the understanding. This universal subjective validity of satisfaction which combine with the representation of the object that we call beautiful is grounded on that universality of the subjective conditions of the judging of objects alone. The third moment of the beautiful has to do with the problem of the purpose(or end) and purposiveness(or finality). Kant claims that the beautiful has to be understood as purposive, but without an objective or determinate purpose. This notion has some similarity with an artificial object of unknown function. This analogy is insufficient because we assume that there is a purpose to be found. Beauty in nature will appear(for our cognitive faculties) as purposive, but its beauty will have no purpose. The fourth moment attempts to show that aesthetic judgements must have the subjective necessity. But this necessity is of a special kind : it is exemplary and conditioned. Kant calls the condition of necessity 'common sense(sensus communis)'. In other words the condition of necessity that is alleged by a judgement of taste is the idea of 'common sense'. This becomes a priori principle of our taste judgement. Kant wants to claim that in aesthetic judgements, the universal communicability(the assumed public aspect of feeling), the exemplary necessity(based on subjective principle), and a subjective faculty(of feeling for cognitive harmony) are all different ways of understanding 'common sense'. He also suggests that 'common sense' in turn depends upon, or is identical with, the same faculties as ordinary cognition, that is as those features of human beings which make experience possible. Evidently, Kant's concept of the beautiful has some positive features which we can establish the autonomy of arts on the basis of universality of aesthetic judgements. Nevertheless, it involves the problems of subjectivism and formalism.