한·일어 인과관계 접속표현의 대조연구 : 한국어'-아서','-니까'와 일본어'-て','-ので','-から'를 중심으로
(A) Contrastive Study on Causal Connectives between Korean and Japanese : Focusing on '-asO˘','-nikka' in Korean and '-te','-node','-kara' in Japanese
문장법 인과관계 접속표현;
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The purpose of this study is to identify unique semantic areas, and shows similarities and differences between Korean and Japanese causal connectives by comparing and analyzing the corresponding relationships between Korean connective endings, '-asoˇ', '-nikka' and Japanese connective particles '-te','-node','-kara'. This study investigates three variables ; the levels of subjectivity or objectivity, the level of politeness and mood, on a large scale. While connectives in both languages are similar in that they presuppose 'causality', they show significant differences as there is no one-to-one correspondence in the subject. Korean '-asoˇ' is considered to have a wider extension compared to other expressions in terms of semantic category. '-asoˇ' expresses natural phenomena or universal and objective causality with high level of politeness. It does not show mood because of many restrictions when it is used at the end of a sentence. In case of the corresponding Japanese '-te', it represents a significant similarity to '-asoˇ' since it gets causality presupposing succession in the context. Especially, '-te' corresponds to '-asoˇ' in that it expresses more objective causality than '-node'. Moreover, '-te' and '-asoˇ' are similar as they both have many restrictions at the end of a sentence. Korean '-asoˇ' corresponds to '-node' with respect to expressing objective causality and is similar to '-node' as an intention to express causality more clearly than '-te'. With regard to mood, '-node' also has restrictions, while it does not correspond to '-asoˇ' because the restrictions are neutralized and it acquires it's mood tendencies in a polite sentence. While the Korean '-asoˇ' expresses strong objectivity, it partly corresponds to the Japanese '-kara' which expresses subjectivity, providing reasons related to the speaker's will or decision. In other words, '-asoˇ' has wide causality and corresponds to both '-node' and '-kara'. Korean '-nikka' expresses rationale for subjective and personal decisions, which is expended from the original meaning, 'discovery'. Accordingly, it shows much similarity to the Japanese '-kara'. They correspond in terms of strong subjectivity and mood. Supposing that '-kara' is used in a formal sentence and there is an expression of a speaker's will, order or a proposal at the end of a sentence, it may be supplemented by '-node' which indicates high level of politeness. In case of Korean, '-nikka' is selected for all cases, regardless of politeness, because of the characteristic feature that '-asoˇ' can not co-occur with mood elements at the end of a sentence. In terms of corresponding relationships between the Japanese '-node', the Korean '-nikka' is restricted without specific similarity except that it partly resembles to '-node', a supplement of '-kara' in a polite sentence. Korean '-nikka' identifies strong subjectivity considering that it does not mostly correspond to Japanese '-te' with it's high objectivity. In conclusion, this study describes that Korean '-asoˇ' has wider semantic extension than '-nikka' in that it corresponds not only to '-te' with presupposition of succession in large part, but also to '-node' with objectivity and '-kara' which partly expresses subjective causality. While Korean '-nikka' has a strong correspondence to Japanese '-kara' with presupposed subjectivity which expresses an personal rationale for decisions, it corresponds less to '-node' and '-te'.