북한 에너지체제 분석 및 남북 에너지협력 방안
Analysis on the energy system of DPRK and energy cooperation of Korea
iii, 96 p.
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The paper analysed the energy system of North Korea (NK) and searched the options of South-North Korea energy cooperation which could achieve both economic recovery and environmental sustainability of NK. The paper firstly made a theoretical survey on energy system. The hard energy system, following the capital intensive, centralized, large scale, and complex production system, has recently suffered from the crisis. Therefore, the need to transit to soft energy paths has been increasing. The soft energy paths orient toward democracy, distribution, small scale and simplicity. And Distribution generation have the potential to facilitate the evolution of community based energy (CBE). Also it is expected to reinforce democracy and citizenship in community control of electricity generation, and enhance community participation in decision making of energy policy. The transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) requires the comprehensive system transfer, and therefore considering the aspects of human resource development and capacity building. Clean development mechanism (CDM) has the potential to make developing countries stop the carbon intensive development but leapfrog to sustainable energy system. Following these theoretical views, the energy system of NK is reviewed in the paper. The principle of self-sufficiency and regeneration has been reflected in energy policies of NK. Since 1980s, NK has tried to mitigate local electricity shortage by introducing renewable energies such as small hydro power, wind power, and others. Energy shortage in NK has been accelerated due to investment resource shortage, worn-out equipments and facilities in the complex and capital intensive electricity supply system of hydro and coal-fired power. NK energy related activities centered on coals have caused the main environmental problems of air and water pollution. And deteriorating food and energy shortage brought about forest devastation, and ultimately NK has fallen in the vicious cycle of energy shortage, environmental degradation and depressed economy. In confronting energy problem of NK, it has been discussed energy cooperation with North Korea through electricity grid interconnection, and construction of nuclear power plant by KEDO, but these options have the difficulties of obsolete transmission and distribution facilities and the limits to be temporary one-off projects. Therefore the sustainable South-North energy cooperation would be directed toward promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency improvement. Financing these projects could be addressed through Korean CDM. The energy cooperation would be focused on NK industry production capacity recovery through addressing NK energy shortage, and could give South Korea greenhouse gases emission credits and the promoted diffusion of renewable energy. The short and long term implementation strategies for energy cooperation between two Koreas must be suggested more specifically, taking account into current situation and outlook of NK. It is required from the long term perspective that promotion of energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization should be supported institutionally, that policy cooperations should be expanded in the field of energy and environmental policies through articulating the international practices and procedures of sustainable development to NK, and further that South-North integration in energy and environmental policies should be searched and implemented.
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