대용어의 결속현상과 분포적 특성
(An) Analysis of Binding and Distributional Characteristics in Anaphor
문법 대용어 결속현상;
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Amidst the rapidly changing trend of globalization, languages have also mixed and mingled with other languages. For instance, many English words are used as they are in the Korean language. In particular, this paper identifies the distribution of reflexive pronouns in the English and Korean language. Another purpose of this paper lies in determining their differences. Chomsky (1981) proposed three types of normative phrases according to the binding condition of government category. From a wider meaning, an anaphor includes nominative phrases, PRO, traces of nominative phrase (NP trace), and empty categories according to binding conditions. In Chapter II, Chomsky's government-binding theory, which is the theoretical background, is examined as the minimalist approach. Government concept is based on the c-command, which is like (1), and the binding condition of (2) is comprised of binding theory of (3). (1) α c-commands β iff a. α does not dominate β b. the first branching node dominating α dominates β. (2) Binding Theory a. An anaphor is bound in its governing category. b. A pronominal is free in its governing category. c. An R-expression is free everywhere. (3) β is bound by α if and only if α and β are coindexed and α c-commands β. Chomsky (1995) assumes that there are two different levels in the interface of LF and PF. PF is a merely phonetic representation, and the binding condition applies on LF, not on PF. He assumes that a local domain endows the locality of movement and that a overt representation is only the characteristics of the lexical categories. In Chapter III, PRO and reflexes are examined from a minimalist approach. PRO appears when a verb does not need to check a case. If a verb has to check a case, a reflexive should appear in the case position. One of the main point in Chapter IV is to argue for the distribution and properties of anaphors in the Korean languages and the differences between the Korean and English languages by the questionnaire. The survey shows that the structure of an anaphor presents a 'phrasal reflexive'. A phrasal reflexive does not allow a long-distance binding, which the movement to a higher clause is blocked. Meanwhile, the Korean language enables both a long-distance binding and a local binding since a head movement takes place with the morphological characteristics of the Korean language. Consider the following sentences (4). (4) a. Chulsuka Youngsuleul chaki chashini kako sipuhaneun taehake ponaeta. (Chulsui makes Youngsuj enter the university where he wants to go himselfi/j.) b. Johnⅰbelieves that Tom j hates himself *i/j. Chapter IV attempts to show the study of how the students understand the meaningful interpretation of reflexives in Korean and English, and the co-referential relationship between an anaphor and a sentential subject. If there is an embedded clause within a sentence, an anaphor takes not the object inclination but the subject inclination. Moreover, 'empty category' is used as reflexive meaning, which is an unique characteristic in the Korean language. Conclusively, In English, it is possible to discover the long-distance binding phenomenon as well, but it lacks the ability to explain the long-distance binding. Although there are many other kinds of reflexives in the Korean language besides the ones mentioned above, a relationship of feature checking on the minimalist approach will surely help the analysis of reflexives in the both languages to make more clearly.