플라톤의 「국가론」에 나타난 영혼 양육의 교육론
(The)theory of education for the nurture of the soul in Plato's 「The Republic」
i, 66 p.
영혼양육 플라톤의 교육론;
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Nowadays the education in our schools deviates from the nature of education and is administered as a form of fragmental and functional instruction and mainly as a preparation for entering college or university. In this thesis, I will search for groundwork for establishing the desirable education in schools through Plato's theory of education in his work,「The Republic」. Also I will make a few suggestions for helping solve these problems in today's education in schools from Plato's theory of education. In this thesis, I first surveyed 'the construction of the ideal state' and 'ideal individuals' which Plato presents in his work 「The Republic」. According to Plato, a state consists of guardians, auxiliaries and producers. An ideal state can be realized when each of them plays his own role and displays his ability sufficiently and it should be controlled by philosophers to be well-balanced and harmonized as a whole. For Plato, a human being is made up of body and soul. Our life is led by the soul which consists of reason, spirit and appetite. 'Appetite', which is the greatest part of soul, means the desire that mainly aims at the fulfillment of physical instinct and the accumulation of wealth. This part sometimes yields to reason, but sometimes rejects it. 'Spirit' is the element of the soul which is eager for honor. This generates several temperaments, such as courage, cruelty, right anger, anger without reason, and so on. The uppermost part of soul is 'reason'. This is a kind of philosophical element that loves wisdom, guides and controls the other parts of the soul. For Plato, an ideal individual is one whose reasonal part guides and controls the spirit and appetite. A philosopher is someone who recognizes the whole rank system of Ideas and Idea of the Good, which is the best of all Ideas. Such a philosopher is the ideal individual portraited by Plato. Secondly, I surveyed 'the nature of education', 'the curriculum in education', and 'the contents in education' Plato wrote. Plato thought 'the nature of education' is 'the nurture of the soul' for raising ideal individuals. The nurture of the soul means turning the direction of vision so as to allow the soul, which has dynamis and organon, to see the world of truth. That is, through the skill of turning the soul, education is what enables people to reach the eternal, intelligible world from the visible world which is being created and transformed. Plato divided the curriculum of education into five stages and presented the contents in education that each stage needs. In summary, the younger have to be given music and physical education as a basic education until they are 20 years old. Then, those who are selected as superior are given education in philosophy to realize the real knowledge through preliminary instruction in philosophy and dialectic. The education Plato suggested comes to an end by the time the younger becomes 50 years old. Thirdly, I discussed Plato's theory of Idea and his 4-step-theory of the development of knowledge which is the philosophical foundation of his theory of education. In conclusion, I give a few suggestions for helping solve the problems of today's education in schools in terms of Plato's theory of education. First, Plato's dialectic gives us one of the methods that we should think of students not only as explorers and but also as active learners in solving problems. Through his dialect, we can enhance the whole atmosphere of education in our schools. Second, Plato thought that education is required for living a happy life through the harmony of individuals and society. His theory of education enables us to acquire the wisdom to overcome egoism and recognize each individual as an social being. Third, the musical and physical education Plato emphasized can give adolescents, who are exposed to many negative environments, the conditions to enable them to cultivate a sound and healthy mind. Lastly, Plato's theory of education, which discusses education on the basis of an individual's ability and aptitude, can help us reconsider the too far-fetched anticipation of parents about their children, especially in Korea, which is one of the greatest problems in our society