災難管理 行政體制의 比較分析 : 한국·미국·일본의 재난행정체제를 중심으로
Comparative analysis on the administration of disaster management
소방정책학과 소방정책학 전공
재난관리 행정체제 재난행정체제 한국 미국 일본;
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The objectives of this study is to search for the desirable system of disaster management in Korea by reviewing the theory on administration of disaster management and by comparing the system of disaster management in Korea with the system in the United States and Japan. Based on this, the study found the problems in the Korean system of disaster management and looked for the desirable direction to improve the administration system. The disaster means the condition where the unexpected or undesirable incident and phenomenon bring about the enormous loss in property and body. The disaster is divided into two categories, natural disaster and man-made disaster, according to the occurrence cause. Also, the disaster would be able to be classified with acutely disaster and chronic disaster. The disaster is managed according to the phase and it generally classified into four phases, which are prevention and relief phase, preparation phase, confrontation phase, and rehabilitation phase. According to these four phases of disaster management, this study analyzed the administrative system of disaster management in Korea, the United States, and Japan. Based on the analysis, it also suggested eight problems on the system of disaster management in Korea such as pluralized administrative sections and disaster prevention relation law, the matter of budget system related to disaster, the irrational provision on disaster damage and the recovery fund supported by the central government, the nonprofessional disaster prevention charge, the insufficient human and material support, the disregard on safe regulations, the intervene of local government, and the operation of the disaster recovery fund. About these problems the study suggested several plans to advance the system of disaster management in Korea such as the general direction, the system and policy, the administrative system, and the organization fully responsible for the disaster management, the advancement of prevention and relief phase, and the improvement of preparation and confrontation phase. Especially with the start of the department of fire and disaster prevention on June 1, 2004, the research also pointed out the need of the disaster management system of local government, which is actually responsible for the disaster prevention and confrontation in the community, and proposed the directions for reorganizing the local organization. Since the local government is in charge of the confrontation and reconstruction when the disaster occurs in the local community, it is urgently required to reorganize the system of central government and local government. The government shortly has to assist and enhance the reorganization and improvement of the disaster prevention system because the first function of the central government and the local government is to protect the life and property of the citizen.