상흔의 탐색과 회복 : 토니 모리슨(Toni Morrison)의 후기 3부작을 중심으로
Traces of Trauma and Its Recovery in Toni Morrison's Trilogy Novels
상흔 탐색 회복 토니 모리슨;
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Toni Morrison has consistently dealt with the struggle of remaining whole in this incomplete world in which human beings' freedom has been restricted. She has thought more specifically about history and its uses for the writer and tried to seek for the truth as an African American writer. Her job for the truth is to recover the past and to reenvision the future by exorcising the trauma, both personal and historic. Morrison called her works 'village literature' that retrieved the village life of black ancestors as source of power like traditional black music, and their experiences. She makes the African American history condensed to the individual and manifested his or her self image in her novels especially through women who suffered from triple discrimination in terms of race, sex, and class. Morrison creates multiple versions of stories in her trilogy―Beloved, Jazz and Paradise―to represent processes of healing, transformation, and insight. Especially, the dangers of excessive love-for children, mates, or God are played across time in her trilogy in which the characters are forced to the extreme of life. Thus, this dissertation aims to analyze Morrison's trilogy from the African American historical and psychological perspectives. In Beloved, Morrison uncovers the buried stories from the past and examines one former slave woman's process of healing of self-identity. Beloved deals with the mother-daughter relationship derived from obsessed maternity situated in the slavery and its aftermath. The black mother, Sethe who killed her children loved them so much and placed all of the value of her life in them outside herself. Sethe views her children not as individual human beings but as parts of her and claims ownership, the right to make life or death decision for her children. Love, including the maternal love, which results in the desire to possess or own other people is considered dangerous in Morrison text. Finally Sethe recovers the nature of 'the beloved', unbridled and authentic self in herself. Here Morrison uses the artistic craft of rememory which makes the past become reincarnated in present physically and concretely. The subsequent novel, Jazz deals with the transformation of tragic relationship of a love triangle of a middle-aged man, Joe, his young lover, Dorcas and his wife, Violet to a familial love, Joe, Violet and their alternative daughter, Felice. Morrison explores African Americans' sorrows, secrets and violent pasts, tracing their inside cracks caused by the cutoff from ancestors and family. Morrison uses the improvisational quality of jazz music as a narrative strategy to make Jazz a talking book. With Postmodern aspect, Jazz blurs the lines between the novelist and the narrators, and the "writer" repeatedly enters the work, to explain and often alter the narrative course of events. As Joe and Violet reconstruct their identity through struggling married life, Morrison shows healing process to those who survive the violent confrontation with the repressed past. The last book of the trilogy, Paradise deals with the insight through the conflict between two groups of people which have different ideology. A group of black men from all-black town of Ruby massacres a small group of women who have taken refuge in an abandoned convent. Ruby is represented as a paradise of order and safety in contrast to the Convent as a heaven of acceptance. Morrison investigates the politics of inclusion and exclusion and points out the danger inherent in attempting to create a paradise on earth by the demand of exclusion. Morrison shows her view of the reading process as an empathic and interactive connection between the author and her readers from the scene of Consolata's listening to Piedade's song. The peace people seek for is from the mutual correspondence of open minds and it is a paradise for those who have insight through the pain. In conclusion, Morrison exorcises black people's cycle of trauma in generations and each of them comes to realize the power of his own voice in the process of healing, transformation and insight by narrating his life and defining himself as a subject. Morrison discovers and celebrates the dynamic force and firm determination that have enable generations of African American to survive.