민중신학적 관점에서 본 시편의 민족 탄원시
(The) Lament of the People in the Psalms from The Minjung Theological Viewpoint
신학과 구약신학 전공
민중신학적 시편 민족탄원시;
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In this thesis, the writer investigated the position of LP(The Lament of the People), the character of literature, the suffering of Israel, the way of overcome on the suffering, the correlation of Israel with emeny of LP in the Psalms, the lament of Israel and the answer of God. Especilly, the writer investigated the lament of the people in the Psalms from the Minjung Theological viewpoint. Until now, many scholars studied the lament of the people in the Psalms. But they didn't investigate it in connection with a religious, a social, an ecomonical and a political situation of it. Thus, the causes of the Israelite's sufferings were not explained actually. Therefore, the witer studies LP from the Minjung Theological viewpoint. The Minjung Theology started in 1970's in the South Korea. The Minjung Theologians said that the Korean people are best characterized as an oppressed people, who can be liked to the Israelies. The history of Korea from its beginning to the present day is a history of suffering and destruction caused by foreign oppression and invasion. In the Bible, the history of the Israelies are in the same situation. The writer followed the Minjung Theological theory of Tae- soo Yim. Yim Tae- soo is a Minjung theologian. He accepts the Bible as the canon of Christianity. The Psalms made up of 150 poems. There are six major types in the Psalms. They are as follows: 1. Hymn, 2. Royal Psalms, 3. Lament of individual, 4. Lament of the people, 5. Psalms of the coronation 6. Song of thanksgiving of the individual. There are 10 LP in the Psalms. Each has his unique subject. 1. The lament of the people cursing the oppression of enimies(44, 60, 83) 2. The lament of the people about the loss of Holy Place(74, 79, 80) 3. The lament of the people about the Zion(85, 126, 129, 137) The lament of the people are not so numerous in the Pslter, But they are very important. They have a certain position in the Psalms. These Psalms are telling us about the public sense of loss and rage tht we all have in common. The structual characters of the lament of the people in the Psalms are found following terms: 1. calling for God(address and introductory cry help) 2. lament 3. conviction(turning tword God) 4. petion 5. vow of praise The Israelies use following terms for the calling for God: O God, why, remember, give etc. The callings for God of the Israelies have a cavant correlationship. There are three kind of lament in the LP.: 1) Israel's accusation on brutalities of the enemy 2) Israel's self-contemptuous lament on their suffering 3) Israel's wishes on active intervention of God The Israelies use following terms for their petitiona in the LP.: hear, save punish etc. In the vow of praise, Israelies sometime say that give us life, and, we will call on your name. The earnest requests play a role to convant sufferings with praises. The Israel's belief in God shows their faith that God will never desert them. They have a strong conviction about God's salvation. Therefore we can find that the Israel's suffering are being solved in their praises and convictions. Also we find that God is just intervening Israel's the bitter situation for the salvation. The Israelies are in the middle of the suffering. The enemy has invaded the country. The Temple is defiled. Jerusalem is laid in ruins. A horrible massacre has been perpetrated amongst the cult community. The ghastly spectacle of corpses lying around unburied meets the eye everywhere and to this is added the unbear able taunt of neighbours gloating over the misfortunes of the people. Now, the Israelite are the Minjung. They have been doubly oppressed by the foreigners and by the neighbours. Therefore, their situation is a very difficult situation in oppression and horror. The israelite are the weak from a social- economical point of view. In a political side, the Israelite are the people oppressed by powerful enemies. They are deprived of their possessions by the abused of strong power of the enemies. Also, in a religious side the Israelite are in very difficult situation. It is difficult for the Israelite to endure religious pressures of the enemies who abjure their belief in God. However, the Israelite are not disheartened. They don't surrender to religious pressures of the enemies. They praised only God and carried themself in truth. This is certainly very big thing that at the very moment when the waves of disaster pitilessly engulf the cult community the way to God is still open to them at all and that they desperately cling to him who alone can still support them in such circumstance. The is the power of Minjung who believe in only God in difficult situation. Then, who are the enemies? They are the nations and the foreign people. : Edom, Moab, Ishmaelites, Hagrites, Gebal, Ammon, Amalek, Philistia, Tyre, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon. These nations and the people laied crafty plans against the Israelite, and They made a covenant against the God. Also, They have invaded the Israelite, and the Temple has defiled. These enemies are the strong nations and the people. The enemies hold power and wealth. They have oppressed the weak which were the Minjung. They inflict pains upon the weak as Israelite, and give an undivided attention to satisfy their selfish interests and dsires. The enemies are the wicked from a social- ethical point of view. Also, they are the arrogant who despise God and disbelieve in him. They are the practical or functional atheist. The functional atheist is self- confident and desires only such things as power and happiness of a sort. To gain such goals as security, wealth, power and happiness, anything goes. Their life and behavior are not modified by morality, are not lived beneath the horizon of justice, and are not qualified by the possibility of either human or divine judgment. The weak are there to be exploited or oppressed. The stronger may be recognized, though only for safety's sake. Their goals are entirely self- centerd, and in seeking to attain them, they do not hesitate to oppress and explot their fellow humn beings. They are the murderer of the Israelite and Minjung. Therefore, the enemies and Israelite are in hostile- relation each another. If God don't arbitrate between two part, They can not live together in this world. The Israelite find themselves torn between two poles. On the one side is the Lord, to whom they address their lament. On the other side is the enemy who, at that moment in time, was exalted and appeared to have the upper hand. The Israelite think that the basic causes of his sufferings come from God. So the Israelite think that they suffer pain bacause of God hides himself from them, or God gets angry with or leaves them. Also, they think that God punishes because of their sins. Sometimes they think that God punishes in spite of their innocence. The exaltation of the enemies and the turned face of God aggravate still further the pain and grief of the Israelite. They have already seen the death, And the approach of death made more acute the sense of God's distance. But they belived God only even under the extreme situations of severe sufferings. They convinced that God will solve sufferings. Their convictions, praises and vow show that they perceived of God's providence and love. God is a continuous helper and supporter of the Israelite. The Israelite believe in that God will avenge to their enemies. The confidence is expressed within the tension which exists between past experience and future hope. The past experience of the Israelite have been one of trust in God's lovingkindness, namely the faithful covenant love of God which characterized all his dealings with his chosen people. The present reality was of such a nature as to undermine that past experience of trust, but it is in the nature of confidence to transform the present on the basis of past experince and thus to creat hope for the future. Therefore, their laments are the pray of hope. In LP, the Israelite are the weak like the Minjung. They are oppressed by the Egypt. However, God loves them. So God led the Israelite to the land flowing with milk and honey. Then they owned the land, and found a country on the land. They become a strong nation. But turned away and gave no answer to their God. When their mind left the Minjung's position, they left from God. After that, they have met the severe sufferings. Therefore, we find that God looks at the Minjung. Although they become a strong people and nation, God wants that they have the humble Minjung's mind. At the monent, the churches are in very difficult situation. The growth is stopped. At a time like this, if we have the humble Minjung's mind, and we love the Minjung, and pray for the Minjung, God will recover our churches.