셸리 시에 나타난 이중적 자아와 통합의 비전 : Julian and Maddalo와 Prometheus Unbound를 중심으로
(A) Vision of the Unification of the Divided Self in Shelley's Poetry : An Analysis of Julian and Maddalo and Prometheus Unbound
영어영문학과 문학 전공
셸리 시 이중적자아 통합의비전;
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This dissertation purports to analyze the issue of the divided self in Shelley's poetry. Shelley consistently reveals his concern with the divided self throughout his poetic career and examines pathway towards his philosophical conclusions. His initial anger and hatred of the contemporary political reality and dogmatic theology leads to introspective searching into the causes of human misery, and he finds his answer in the inner workings of the human mind. He comes to believe that the true solution to human misery is unification of the divided self. The divided self is poetically represented by Shelley in many different ways: good and evil, preserver and destroyer, liberalist and tyrant, the spirit of freedom and tyranny, pleasure and pain, and altruism and selfishness. His poetry shows that the good and the evil both are rooted in one's mind. Thus, the good and the evil, which seem to be conventionally regarded as divided and separate, are represented in his poetry as being integrated. Shelley believes that the divided self should be unified into 'One Mind' by human imagination and love. It is also his belief that through a unified mind people can enter into a true heaven in which love and endurance prevail and blessing can be realized. His poetry evidences this belief through a variety of symbols and characters. The poems Julian and Maddalo and Prometheus Unbound manifest Shelley's thoughts about the divided self, which have deepened with the passage of time and the progress of his poetic career. In Julian and Maddalo, Shelley presents the aspects of a divided-self through the conversation of the characters Julian and Maddalo, and also through a maniac's monologue. Shelley characterizes the contrasting manners of Julian and Maddalo, as the former is portrayed as an idealist and the latter as a realist. Readers are likely to expect these two figures to be incompatible. Shelley, however, opens ways for them to relate to and reconcile with each other through the maniac's monologue. The beginnings of the 'One Mind' philosophy are found in the maniac's monologue. Julian and Maddalo is a step in Shelley's progress forward to the complete concept of 'One Mind,' as demonstrated through complementing one's limits and adapting another's strong points. In the Prometheus Unbound Shelley constructs a more sturdy and elaborate illustration of building the 'One Mind.' In the Utopia, which is realized when one can achieve 'One Mind,' a person can find love and hope, the joy of which is expressed in Act 4 through the symbols of song and the dance of victory. Shelley emphasized in Act 1 that when the self, which should be 'One Mind' is divided, human beings cannot prevent being bound with hatred and having an impulse to be vengeful and to curse. To be liberated, one must achieve 'One Mind', meaning perfect oneness. Shelley thinks that to achieve 'One Mind', one should be renewed by love which is symbolized in Prometheus Unbound as marriage between Prometheus and Asia in a cave in Act 3. The marriage is made possible by using the imagination of the two parties concerned. Through love which is a universal principle, one can obtain gentleness, virtue, wisdom, insight, and endurance. Prometheus in the Prometheus Unbound is a representative of the mankind. The conflicts of the divided self in his mind exemplify those of he mankind. The sexual love and union represented in Act 2 symbolize the importance of love, which Shelley believes to be the only way to achieve the state of 'One Mind'. A vision of the unification of the divided self is presented in a symbolic but distinctive way. In Shelley's vision, one's mind is a true sanctuary in which one can attain divinity. Good and evil are 'mind-forged manacles' in Shelley's view. Shelley, a spiritual son of Milton tries to portray that one 'can make a Heaven of Hell, or a Hell of Heaven' in his own mind. Shelley believes that love should prevail in the world. Love is the only thing which drives away all evils in this world. Shelly, an 'unacknowledged legislator' seeks to project a vision of the salvation of humanity from the deteriorating division of self in his Julian and Maddalo and the Prometheus Unbound.