마르틴 루터와 존 칼빈의 교회론 비교 연구
(A) Comparative Study on Ecclesiology of Martin Luther and John Clavin
이론신학과 조직신학 전공
교회론 비교연구 마르틴루터 존칼빈;
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The purpose of this study is to explore the meaning and the characteristics of Martin Luther's and John Calvin's ecclesiology and to attempt to recover the true essence of the church. In his efforts to reform the Catholic church, Luther recovers the biblical doctrine of "justification by faith" and "the priesthood of all believers." Calvin emphasizes "the non-visible church" along with the visible church. Calvin understood visible church as a Christ's body which practises Lord's supper and proclaims rightly the word of God. On the one hand, the church in Korea seems to follow the mistakes of the Catholic church of the middle ages such as the radical hierarchical order and institutional securalism. Therefore, this theses intends to suggest a new direction for the church in Korea to recover the true image of the church in relation to religious reformers. Luther understands the church as "a communion of saints", communio sanctorum which proclaims the proper Gospel and excutes an eucharist on the regular bases. So Luther's ecclesiology seems to ignore the institutional side, and highlights the fellowship of believers. For Luther, true church as "a communion of believers" is invisible, hidden in the institutional church as believers who are simultaneously the righteous and the sinned. Luther's ecclesiology can be compared with anabaptist's secterian-type-church position. John Calvin, the other reformer, shows an ecclesiology which is similar to Luther's ecclesiology. "We discover the true church , where the word is preached in piety and the eucharist is not looked away." Calvin also emphasizes the true nature of church in terms of the preaching of the word and the eucharist. For Calvin church has a paradoxical character; visible and invisible, holy and imperfect, infinite and finite, and spiritual and worldly. Church is a organization of men and the body of christ. Therfore, church is always in anxiety and tension. No church is exempted from temptation and threat. In spite of our sins and unfaith, God invites us to his fellowship, makes us his holy people in order to serve and work his redemptive work. Calvin's ecclesiology calls our attention to the proper relation of form and content of the church. Apart from the form, the content becomes blind; apart from the content, the form becomes empty. The spirit of God must be embodied in the concrete church.