소매업의 구조재편과 공간구조 변화 : 대구시를 사례로 : a case study of Deagu city
Retail restructuring and spatial Changes
v, 170 p.
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The retail business of Korea has significantly developed in quantity and quality since 1986 as rapid economic growth led the increase of income and expenditure, conglomerates joined the retail business, the retail market gradually opened its door, and Korean government carried out its modernization policy of retail business. In recent years the business environment of retail business is changing more rapidly. Since 1990s the world has become a single market in the field of retail business as a result of globalization. As the free trade atmosphere heightened, Korea opened its retail market completely in 1996. Thus multinational distributors began to join Korean market in earnest and large discount stores and advanced techniques and management method had been introduced, which triggered the entry of conglomerates into distribution industry to preoccupy the market. In addition, the Korean government's policy for distribution has moved toward lightening regulations. Specifically, the atmosphere surrounding retail business had been changing swiftly with the development of distribution information, economic slowdown after the 1997 financial crisis, consumers' propensity to buy lower priced goods, and their preference for one-stop, multi-purpose shopping. In the midst of these rapid changes, small and medium retail stores which have petty funds and lose competitiveness due to inefficient operation have decreased in the number. Now the retail business of Korea is facing a time to restructure itself in the whirl of rapid changes since 1996. To cope with the changes, the retail business has accelerated its quantitative growth and went through the restructuring in the aspect of funds, size, productivity, dealing products, employment and structure. And big retailers which have great influence on the retail structure and spatial structure have played a leading role in this restructuring process. Besides, this retail restructuring to cope with changing retail business environment is supposed to involve the change of retail spatial structure of the country, region, and city on which the restructuring has influence. Also the change in spatial structure of retail is closely related to the development and location of big retailers which have led the development of spatial development of retail. This paper is aimed at analyzing the restructuring and spatial structural changes of retail business of the whole country of Korea and the city of Daegu from 1968 to 2001 and the relationship to the changes in the retail business environment.. To accomplish this, the restructuring of retail is divided by period and the general characteristics of the restructuring per period were investigated. The structural changes of retail were analyzed through distributional changes of the whole retailer business per restructuring period and locational changes of big retailers per restructuring period. Various kinds of statistics and documents related to wholesale business and retail business were used in the study and the result of spatial analysis was mapped. The result of study is summarized as follows. First, some of the major surrounding factors affecting retail restructuring are urbanization, the income and expenditure changes of consumers, the changes of their desire, development of transportation, the opening of distribution market, the changes of distribution system, distribution information and so on. Depending on the rapid changes of these factors, there occurred in the retail business of Korea larger retail stores, oligopoly, industrialization, the growth of modernized forms of retail business, comprehensiveness, the increased number of stores, the dispersion of stores and unequal number of retail stores depending on the location. Small stores with petty capital couldn't cope with the changes and lost their competitiveness. The number of small stores dropped and the decline of traditional markets was accelerated. Second, the whole process of retail restructuring of Korea was divided into three periods; the low growth period(1968∼1985), the high growth period(1986∼1995) and the restructuring period(1996∼present). The low growth period is characterized by the absence of systematic distribution policies, consumers' tendency to buy low-priced products, a small-scale, one item retail stores, pre-modernity of management, family-managed stores, stores as a means of living and low productivity. The growth of retail business during this period was not eminent in quantity and quality. The high growth period shows that the retail business started to grow tremendously in quantity and quality. There occurred the concentration of capital, pursuit of larger stores, comprehensive list of dealing products, industrialization, the lower ratio of self-employed people and significantly increased ratio of regular employees, temporary workers and daily workers. Productivity was also much improved during this period. In spite of all these changes, however, still the retail structure at this time was not far from pre-modern one which was characterized by one item retail stores and small retail stores run by private management. During the restructuring period the concentration of capital and pursuit of larger stores and productivity were strengthened and the retail structure was reorganized centering around comprehensive retail business and industrial form of stores. In the aspect of employment, the number of self-employed people and regular employees decreased while that of daily workers and temporary ones much increased. Third, from the results of investigating the spatial structural changes of retail business of Korea per restructuring period, it can be known that in terms of annual sales the retail business was concentrated in Seoul and Busan during the low growth period(1968∼1985). During the high growth period(1986∼1995) the concentration of retail business to Seoul diminished due to the growth of other big cities but still the retail business was concentrated in big cities, especially around the National Capital area and Yeongnam area. In comparison, the number of retail business in local areas tended to decrease. During the restructuring period(1996∼present), the concentration of retail business in the National Capital area heightened, so that more than half of the retailers concentrated in that area. But it lessened in other big cities, provinces, and the Yeongnam area. It seems that large retail stores, which were established in great numbers in the big cities due to the development of new cities in Gyeonggi-do and economic slowdown at that point, focused their shop opening strategy on Seoul and the National Capital area where people are densely populated, profits were sure to guaranteed and distribution conditions were better. From the results of investigating the developmental changes of retail business of Korea per restructuring period, it can be known that during the low growth period traditional markets were scattered around rural areas and permanent traditional markets were established in Seoul and other big cities in parallel with the development of the cities since 1970s. Department stores were established also in Seoul and other big cities. During the high growth period traditional markets declined because of the national expansion of department stores, and large discount stores started to open in Seoul and the National Capital area at the end of the period. During the restructuring period large discount stores were established all over the country while traditional markets declined more rapidly. Department stores and large discount stores were not located in rural areas but concentrated in the big cities and the National Capital area. Fourth, the process for the restructuring of retail business in Daegu is divided into three periods: low growth period(1968∼1985), high growth period(1986∼1995) and restructuring period(1996∼present), which coincides with the period division of nationwide retail business restructuring. During the low growth period, retail business in Daegu was relatively neglected like the nationwide retail business was so because of industrialization-focused policies. Therefore it is hard to find any significant structural changes of retail business in the respect of quantity or quality. This period is characterized by a small-scale, one item retail stores, pre-modernity of management, family-managed stores, stores as a means of living and low productivity. The high growth period shows that the retail business has grown outstandingly in quantity and quality thanks to the drastic economic growth and the systematization of distribution policies. The concentration of capital, pursuit of larger stores, comprehensive list of dealing products and industrialization was also seen during this period. This accordingly resulted in the significantly lower ratio of self-employed people. Since 1990s the ratio of regular employees decreased while that of daily workers and temporary workers increased as large retail stores increased the number of part-timers to reduce cost. Productivity was much improved also during this period. In spite of all these changes, however, the retail structure at this time was not far from pre-modern one which was characterized by one item retail stores and small retail stores run by private management. During the restructuring period the concentration of capital and pursuit of larger stores were strengthened and the retail structure was reorganized, centering on comprehensive retail business and industrial form of stores. In the aspect of employment, the number of self-employed people, unpaid family workers and regular employees decreased while that of daily workers and temporary ones increased, which brought about far more improved productivity. Fifth, from the result of investigating the spatial structural changes of retail business of Daegu per restructuring period, during the low growth period(1968∼1985) the retail business was concentrated in Daeshin-dong, Jung-gu, where the biggest traditional market was located, in southern part of the market or the downtown area, and in the western part of the market or eastern part of Seo-gu. This is because commercial business was developed around the area to satisfy the demand of people living in the area where the population density was high. During the high growth period, it is remarkable that the retail business decentralized to the suburbs and the number of people employed in the business sharply dropped. But the concentration to the downtown area was strengthened and retail business area was formed. During the restructuring period(1996∼present) the number of people employed in the retail business noticeably decreased in the downtown and middle area while it obviously increased around the places where large discount stores were built. However, the concentration to the downtown was much more strengthened and new retail business area was formed as Complex Circulation Area was organized and large discount stores were located in Sankyuk 2-dong. From the result of investigating the locational changes of big retailers in Daegu per restructuring period, during the low growth period traditional markets opened in Jung-gu and in the inner city near Jung-gu in the 1960s. In the midist of general growth of traditional markets all over the city of Daegu, the growth was specifically eminent in Seo-gu and Nam-gu. During the same period, department stores were all established in the downtown. Some traditional markets opened in the newly included districts like Suseong-gu and Dalseo-gu and department stores expanded their location southward from the downtown area to the inner city during the high growth period. During the restructuring period, large discount stores were introduced and located in the suburbs and inner city as they prospered and department stores accordingly expanded the location to the suburbs. During the same period, there were few instances of new opening in the traditional markets. Traditional markets were located in the vicinity of residential area, in comparison to the large-scale retailer, such as department stores, which expand their location from the downtown area in the suburbs and the inner city. The locational patterns of the traditional markets and the large-scale retailer indicated very little overlap.