토마스 아퀴나스의 목적론적 윤리에 대한 한 연구
(A) Study on The Teleological Ethics of Thomas Aquinas
신학과 기독교와 문화 전공
토마스 아퀴나스 목적 윤리;
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1. Introduction The question of how to live should be contemplated from the view of teleological ethics, which believes that man's way of living should be determined in the light of life's ultimate purpose. For this is one the essential substances of Christian theology that humans are the image of God and thus forms its ethical basis. In this connection, I would like to inquire into the ethics theology of Thomas Aquinas(1225-1274), a major Christian philosopher of the mediaeval times, in the view-point of teleological ethics. The eudaimonics and virtue theory portrayed in his ethics theology all belong to teleological ethics. Likewise natural law or human law can easily be considered as elements of deontological ethics, but they also derive from eternal law and thus form a teleological structure. Through a course of argument, it has already been examined how his ideas of natural law turns out to be teleological moral law. This study will be concluded with the confirmation that his thought of Eudaimonics, virtue theory and natural law, the keynotes of the ethics theology of Aquinas, takes up the position of teleological ethics, followed up by a contemporary proposal. However, this study is defective that it didn't discuss thoroughly its difference from other theories, and that since it takes a Protestant's standpoint, Catholic theological view was not sufficiently investigated and considered. 2. Eudaimonics in the teleological ethics of Thomas Aquinas Sources about ethics in the writings of Thomas Aquinas appear mostly in Summa Theologie, Prima Secundae and Secunda Secudae and in Summa Contra Gentiles. In teleological ethics moral justness is determined by the consequence of an action, so it's also called consequential ethics. This is relevant to utilitarianism which puts utility as a criterion of evaluation. Such theory is also related with eudaimonianism and virtue theory of Aristotle. The general conception of Aquinas is, along with happiness as an ultimate goal(finis ultimus), a teleological thought. It is turning toward God- the first cause of all creature, each of them combined in the teleological way, having an original tendency of nature tending towards God. Unlike Aristotles well-being theory, the eudaimonia of Aquinas is described as beatitudo coming from a contemplation of God. To him an ontologically perfect highest good(summum bonum) is God himself- the pure actuality(energeia). And yet, this summun bonum is impossible without supernatural grace. Here we can discover that his teleological ethics theology does not take the viewpoint of metaphysics but of Christianity of revelation. Grace is perceived as an activity of God in us, guiding us to get in unity with God. Grace is surpassing all the powers of the original nature of the creature. However, as we commonly think of well-being, true well-being is often thwarted to diverse forms of evil. All the descriptions or definitions of evil, whether implicitly or plainly, assumes the conception of goodness. Therefore evil is not a mere denial of goodness, but a deficiency or shortage of goodness, which every object should contain. Men can understand the nature of goodness by his own intellect, and by his own will crave for good. Therefore it significant to cultivate one's positive nature. 3. The teleological ethics of Thomas Aquinas and his virtue theory According to Aquinas, virtue is an inclination and habit of one's nature, so it has a goal-tendency, and every act of virtue targets a common good, which is in touch with the utility of utilitarianism. About virtue aiming at goodness, he list virtues such as faith, hope and love, which God infuses in men in terms of theology of grace, above the natural virtues such as prudence, justice, temperance and courage. Especially, the virtue of love, which emphasizes the love of neighbours, serves for the good as a ultimate goal and facilitates it. 4. The teleological ethics of Thomas Aquinas and natural law The theory of Aquinas' natural law is a moral law, which in the purpose for the common good enacts good through virtue and avoids evil. He claims all law stem from eternal law, and prescribes the concept of law in connection with practical reason. Practical reason starts from the virtue of prudence and its principle develops unto natural law and human law. Eternal law, natural law, human law and divine law etc. could be generally defined as an instruction to establish order to guide man's actions toward ultimate goal(finis ultimus). That means the realization of virtue and meets the aim of achieving common good. 5. Conclusion- A Evaluation of the Teleological Ethics of Thomas Aquinas and its Contemporary Significance In reference to his view of teleological ethics, there is a risk in his theory that means can justify its ends. Also there are critical views that these virtues are too abstract, and deontologists critique whether teleology can accompany one's moral determination purely by the consequences of an action. But on the other hand, it is asserted that deontological ethics is prone to leaning toward formalism, and it weakens the revelatory significance of Christianity. The contemporary meaning of the teleological ethics of Thomas Aquinas can be summarized in three. First, his goal-conscious action ethics, which regards contemplation of God as the highest bliss(beatitudo), can give those who search for happiness the grounding of true life. Secondly, his ethics arouses awe of the human nature, and thus actualizes honor and love to others in God's grace. Finally, his teleological ethics can be called communal ethics since it pursues common good in the grace of reason.